創作人怎麼訴說呢?假如他是一位設計家,就用他的設計訴說吧。

設計家的想法都在的設計裏。

是存在主義大師薩特說的吧,“存在先于本質”。這是很自然的事對不對?

一個人不存在,也就没法子說什麼本質了。存在是什麼?

心頭的覺知而已;有覺知有領悟,才可能開始和世界互動、對话。

人真的很孤獨,在設計的概念前,人更是孤獨;

你能問人說:這條線粗些好還是细些好?這用红色好還是籃色好?

如果事事都有答案,創作者的東西怎麼称得上創作,那東西早存在了。所以,創作不外是克服个人的孤獨。

包括和随着創作而来的荒谬感、無盡的苦悶、悲觀、失望和諧共處。

和谐,在這裏也不是没有衝突的意思,而是在衝突後有和解的可能。

Artwork style by Vincent Bourilhon
http://www.facebook.com/vincent.l.armstrong

Rating:
  • Currently 4.5/5 stars.

Views: 313

Comment

You need to be a member of Iconada.tv 愛墾 網 to add comments!

Join Iconada.tv 愛墾 網

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 25, 2022 at 10:37am
電子夢

臺北時間民國七十四年七月十四日,中華電視臺實況轉播了英國歌手基爾朵夫(Bob Geldof)發起的「送炭到非洲演唱會」(Live Aid Concert)

這場盛會,號召了數十位全世界流行歌壇的超級巨星,聚集在大西洋的兩岸,共同完成了一場歷史上「最大的」義演演唱會。

其實是「在你家里舉行」

稱它是「最大的」演唱會,事實上是從媒體事件的觀點來說的。

根據新聞報導,這場義演的電視轉播,動用了十四個電視衛星(想想看,去年洛城的奧運會,不過才用了四個衛星!),收視國家達一百六十國,收視人口則估計有十五億人。

坐在臺灣的電視機前,你仍然可以感受到這個跨洲演唱會的特質。「天涯若比鄰」似乎已不足以描寫這個活動,它事實上混合了預先錄好的影帶,節目越洋互傳,現場演唱,共同結合成為一個內容,坐在臺灣的電視機前,你看到的畫面,實際上出自不同的地點,不同的來源,而得到一個有機的整體。

透過通訊媒介,演唱會從不同的地點在「空中」結合,人物化做電波,重組之後再傳到送你的客廳--演唱會實際上是在你家中舉行的!這就是為什麽「時代周刊」要說,這是「胡士托音樂節加上音樂電視臺」(Woodstock Meets MTV)


這個事件,可以給我們什麽啟發?


整個地球進入表演廳

第一表演娛樂已經有整合性的趨勢,在這一次演唱會中,你已經很難說出它究竟是一個現場表演事件,音樂事件,還是電視事件,事實上它全都是。它一方面是一個真實的演唱會,有十幾萬人在現場參與了盛會,它一方面是一個電視事件,因為它讓十五億人在電視上看到它,它在美國「音樂電視臺」以立體音連播十七個小時,在音響講究的電視器材中,它實際上是一個音樂事件(和唱片一樣),演唱會中插播一段米奇傑格和大偉鮑埃的合唱錄影,那是一個設計性的攝制,概念上是「電影的」。--也就是說,表演藝術上,它究竟是音樂的,舞臺的,電視的,電影的,已經難以分辨,也無法分辨的意義了。

第二,表演娛樂已經有即時性的能力:不管你在倫敦,在紐約,在臺北,在北平,你完全可以共同參與一個事件--只有幾分鐘的差異。世界不僅是縮小了,表演者面對的觀眾簡直是全人類!表演廳的容納量是--一個地球。

第三,表演娛樂能有個別性的兼顧:全世界共同參與一個表演娛樂的時候,每個人又有差異選擇的機會。住在倫敦,費城的人固然可以親身體驗偉大的場面,選擇播出十七小時,美國選擇播出三小時,臺北華視選擇播出四小時,各取所需,不必強制性的統一。即使是臺北的四小時,無暇觀賞的人按下定時錄影的錄影機按鈕,實際上仍可以選擇任何時間,為自己一人播映--全世界超級巨星的總集合,主權仍歸你一人所有。

一卻神妙神奇,都來自於「電子化」。即使是娛樂,在電子化的發展中,夢境制造產業已經起了革命性的變化。


夢的電子革命

你可能還沒有注意到,如果你買了錄影機,實際上就參與了「夢的電子革命」的一部分。

錄影機革了電影賞方式的命,你不需要在一星期的電影檔期中,匆忙選擇一個片場去排隊。--電影放映的時間由你決定,為你一人播映絕不抱怨,還可以暫停(上廁所),可以重來(沒有清楚女主角換衣的鏡頭),地點就在你的客廳或臥房。

下一步,唱片和電視的界限也會模糊,電話和電腦實際上已經同居,遊樂器拉近了電視和電腦的距離,「電子娛樂」馬上是家庭娛樂中大半的內容,你其實很難區分何者的單獨地位。透過聲音,影像的聲色之娛,實際上都以電子形態的音訊或視訊表達--完成你的夢境的,都是電子之夢。

電子夢的來臨,可能會改變一卻娛樂的生產與消費的方式,甚至也改變娛樂的分配方式,娛樂事業的整合性,即時性,個別性--都將在一場發展中的產業革命里,充分地完成!(詹宏志:感性消費時代,摘自詹宏志,趨勢索隱:新工人、新商人、新社會,1986年,臺北遠流出版社)

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 24, 2022 at 10:39am

約翰·奈斯比《藝術復興》

邁入1990年代,人類將面對一項革命性的變化,藝術會逐漸取代體育運動而成為社會主要的消遣活動。凡是進入信息社會、生活高素質的地方,人們都認為有必要通過藝術去重新審視生活的意義。人們將在視覺藝術、詩歌、舞蹈、戲劇和音樂領域發生一場現代的藝術復興運動,從而與近代的工業時代形成鮮明的對照。

美國許多企業界的商家是主要的藝術贊助者,越來越多的商家改用藝術的方式來樹立公司的形象和推銷產品。此方式更能在有教養的消費者心中贏得聲望。藝術活動的繁榮興旺,以致藝術領域中的商業活動和工作機會也激劇增多。美國政府消減藝術的贊助,反而推動了藝術的發展、企業界更積極的參與,結果是藝術變得更有生命力,甚至減少政府對基金會資助的依賴。

藝術復興現象可從紐約或倫敦百老匯劇院、歌劇院、交響樂團、舞蹈團及圖書出版業的急增顯見;許多情況從一個側面也反映了當前藝術繁榮的狀況,比如藝術作品的拍賣記錄比以前高出了兩倍、收藏藝術品的人比文藝復興時期還要多、大型藝術展覽會的參觀人數不斷的增加、歐洲許多國家到處興建新的展覽館,甚至是私人的展覽館把自己收集的收藏品珍藏,流芳百世。

藝術的蓬勃發展促使經濟發展,鼓勵商業和民用房地產建設,促進旅遊事業和吸引新的行業。換句話說,藝術既是文化資源也是經濟資源,投資在藝術上的花費不但影響整個社區的經濟發展,而且能產生多重效應。藝術是旅遊業的資產,能吸引各種商業和工業,提高房地產的價值。展覽館舉辦大型藝術展覽和夏季藝術節能為餐廳、旅館、零售店和停車場帶來可觀的收益,直接幫助地方經濟的發展奠定了基礎。

藝術事業的繁榮發展為許多新行業開啟了富裕之門,年輕人在地區管弦樂團或當地的各種表演團體中做自己喜歡做的事就能容易地養活自己。藝術行業工作的增長速度仍然遠遠超過了所有行業工作的增長速度。例如在19831988年間就增加了1600萬個新的工作機會。根據美國統計局提高的資料,美國藝術行業中現在有150萬人,分別是演員、導演、播音員、建築師、作家、舞蹈員、設計師、音樂家、作曲家、畫家、雕塑家、手工藝家、藝術制版家、攝影師以及教育程度更高一些的藝術、戲劇和音樂指導。此統計尚未計算與藝術有關領域的人員,如藝術經理人、古典傳播媒介工作人員等。


隨著藝術在社會中變得日益重要,個人、公司和城鎮都將在藝術形象、藝術個性和藝術生活方式的影響下不斷地決定各自的命運。

美國企業界是世界上最大的藝術贊助者,美國藝術界因此受益匪淺。這種情況已引起歐洲各國政府決策者的妒忌而試圖改變他們對藝術界提供資助的方式。然而,美國政府已消減了藝術的資助,促使藝術界對自身的經濟狀況負起更多的責任。這種變化從長遠看來使藝術團體更能走上健康發展的道路。

美國藝術界為了有效推銷“產品”,甚至挖掘新“產品”出售,藝術界的產品不得不變得更有商業化和更有革新精神。通過商業“賺錢”方法,把籌集資金的含義擴大。他們通過幾個方法,就是藝術團體通過接納更多知名的藝術界人士入會和舉行募捐活動,動員有藝術修養的公眾向他們提供資助。此傳統的方法為各藝術團體在財政上能生存下去打下了基礎。有些藝術展覽館采用一些非常規的方法:例如把場地出租給其他團體舉行慶典活動,經營銷售額達數百萬美元的零售商店等等。

現在許多展覽館和其他非盈利藝術團體已不把自己看作是他人捐贈資金的消費者了。他們可以更自由地安排計劃,制定政策而不用看別人的眼色行事。當政府緊縮藝術資金時,擁有高大寬敞、墻上掛上有價值昂貴油畫大廳的藝術館已開始出租承辦筵席和各種形式的聚會,例如提供進行會談、宴請、欣賞音樂和舉行舞會等。然而,最引人注目的利潤來自一流展覽館附設的商場。他們經營郵購服務,展覽館商店售出T衫、運動衫、展品目錄、明信片、公司掛歷等。更多賺錢的方法舉辦一些活動,例如:舉行酒會、街邊展銷會、自由演奏會、拍賣會等。雖然如此,不管采用什麽策略,藝術團體的目標只有一個,即想方法設法創收和吸引新的藝術觀眾。


今天,藝術和體育運動會競相爭奪人們的休息時間和金錢。然而,根據統計調查人們消遣方式在藝術活動多於體育活動,參加藝術活動的人數其實已經遠遠超過了觀看體育比賽的人數,但是社會只是看到這個革命性的大趨勢及其意義。有一點是明確無疑的:在決定藝術能夠多快,多廣地取代體育運動的過程中,企業界將起重要的作用。

以往婦女是廣告界難以接近重要的市場。由於調查顯示女性是藝術的愛好者,所以藝術活動已協助廣告界解決此難題。研究後的結論是他們看芭蕾舞的次數比男性多一倍,聽音樂的次數多25%,聽交響樂的次數多27%

對愛好藝術的人說,一些最好的東西根本不在電視里,導致廣播轉向“窄播”的現象。由於大眾傳播媒介播放的藝術節目太少,許多藝術迷正在建立高級的家庭藝術圖書館,安排自己的藝術活動。

許多公司正在轉向利用藝術的形象和聲音來推銷產品。藝術和技術似乎走到一起了,它們都體現新的觀念,代表美的品質。企業對藝術的贊助這一趨勢發展之快是前幾年沒有人預料到的。藝術復興固然是一個因素,越來越多的人認識到藝術能幫助公司建立形象,爭取高級消費者也是一個重要的原因。

企業界在整個1990年代對體育運動的贊助將停滯不前,而對藝術活動的贊助將會持續大幅度地增長。不過,1990年代對體育運動的贊助無疑會帶有商業味道。此外,企業高級領導層中將出現一些女性藝術愛好者和45歲以下,在支持體育活動方面不怎麽熱心的男性。公司在他們的領導下,會認真看待投資藝術給公司帶來的好處。在企業內部,人們也越來越多地用新創造的藝術語言來描述企業的工作狀況。盡管企業在重新確定它們今後贊助和提供廣告的重點對象,但我們不可忽視藝術本身的新的活力或吸引力。藝術界只有做到少花錢,多吸引觀眾,才是推動企業進一步提供贊助的最終因素。(錄自John Naisbitt, Mega Trend 2000)

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 20, 2022 at 8:22pm

詩性可以成為各種藝術結合的切入點

空曠的舞臺上,垂落下幾百隻“窗子”,在舒緩的音樂聲中,“窗子”又漸次升起;電子大屏幕上,被拆散的字體不斷飛舞、變幻,最後定格為一個大大的“詩”字。

這是近日在北京舉行的“打開窗戶——新詩探索40年”活動現場。活動的主辦方北京市朝陽區文化館和《詩探索》編輯委員會別出心裁地,把本次活動辦成了一場以“詩”為主題的劇場演出,詩歌論壇、詩歌朗誦會都在這個劇場進行,同時還穿插了多場戲劇、演唱會、現代舞等詩意演出。

詩歌朗誦會如一場演出:女沙畫家現場作畫,通過投影儀投射到大屏幕上,女性朗讀者排坐在一起,觀賞著“畫意”,醞釀著“詩情”;每一幅沙畫完成時便由一位朗讀者站起來吟誦出她心中的詩。綠色的舞臺燈光、纏綿的音樂背景與低回的朗誦,共同營造出一個詩意盎然的、女性化的藝術天地。

活動主辦方通過這些形式探討著“如何表現一首詩歌”,他們相信詩意無處不在,“詩歌就是生活,生活也是詩歌”。活動的策劃者之一、詩人林莽表示,優秀的詩歌大部分都是可以朗誦的,因為它們都有著優美的語言和抑揚頓挫的旋律。而且,好的藝術都是有詩性的,而詩性可以成為各種藝術結合的切入點。因此,應該不斷去尋找各種藝術之間融合的可能性,探索詩歌朗誦的新形式,豐富人民群眾的文化生活。共產黨員網

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 20, 2022 at 5:11pm

The experience economy: micro trends by Ian Seymour Yeoman and Una McMahon-Beattie

Abstract


Purpose
– This trends paper is based upon a literature review and access to a series of databases; thus,
with the help of these the purpose of this paper is to provide insight into changing consumer behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach
– This paper explores how the experience economy will evolve and
outlines the micro and sub-trends that will shape its future.

Findings –
This paper identifies seven micro trends associated with the experience economy.

The micro
trends are: once is never enough, luxury experienced, leisure upgrade, escape from modernity to authentic-seeking, fluid identity, everyday exceptional and experience first.

Originality/value
– This trends paper provides useful insights into the experience economy for researchers,
practitioners, students or interested parties. Going beyond a broad interpretation, it focuses on specific micro trends in action.

Paper type Trend paper

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 20, 2022 at 5:11pm

Introduction: the experience economy

The experience economy dominates the philosophy of tourism: it permeates how we engage with
tourism and how we consume tourism. The literature tells us that tourists want to encounter a wholerange of experiences such as holidays abroad, cultural events, fine dining or cutting-edge leisure activities (Pine and Gilmore, 2011). They want to enrich their daily lives by experiencing new things and undertaking activities that deliver self-improvement, enjoyment and revitalisation. Sampling new, unique and aspirational experiences provides consumers with the opportunity to develop new skills, acquires new knowledge and thus boosts their share of social and cultural capital (Bourdieu, 2000).

The desire to collect “stories” underpins so many of our consumption choices: new experiences are
sought in order to build memories, identities and stores of social capital. Hence, consumers can be
seen as the experience seekers. Indeed, social media has become a living journal and portfolio of ourdaily lives, which naturally increases the demand for experiences to fuel our online story platforms.

Snapchat and Instagram stories allow consumers to display a constant stream of experiences,
where the mundane or everyday sits comfortably with more glossy, performative content. Here,
shareability and good storyfodder is worth more than any material value. From beautifully presented restaurant meals to music concerts often the sharing of every moment with friends and followers appears to overtake living in the moment itself. Alongside this, rising access to those items once seen as luxuries has encouraged many to place a greater focus on the pursuit of experiences – whether in addition to, or in place of, more material-based forms of consumption.

The ephemerality of the experience economy is also a common draw. Limited-edition events feel more exclusive, while transient pop-ups provide extra status for those who are in the know and reach the location first. And the most premium of experiences cleverly create even more hype by eschewing social media altogether – though shareability and status-boosting is still key. Cult venues such as www.sohohouse.com and www.secretcinema.org ban mobile phones so guests cannot take photos, which could be considered a riskier approach for brands who want to build reputation.

However, consumers benefit from feeling they have experienced something truly unique and are even more likely to share it in real life via word-of-mouth. A growing focus of the luxury sector has been the delivery of premium, status-boosting experiences in addition to best-in-class physical products.

Those with the means to access the sector will expect the experiences they collect – in-store, on
holiday, online – to surpass those available to a mass market clientele.

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 20, 2022 at 5:04pm

According to Foresight Factory (2018a), the ephemeral experience has become an acceptable
capitalist asset; it cannot be quantified or valued, yet it signifies authenticity, individuality, and
solidifies personal positioning in the realm of the fascinating. One driving motivation for travel is the desire to collect unique experiences; the ultimate souvenir is a lasting memory. At its fringes this trend boosts interest in rarer experiences and unvisited places – because a story uncollected by others is more exceptional and thus more valuable. The increasing ability to personalise trips and create bespoke tours, even for travellers on a budget, gives rise to a wider range of unique
experiences which everyone feels entitled to enjoy. Many experience led holidays focus on
disconnecting from the internet, to further absorb oneself in the present. A craving for meaningful
human interactions and a sense of belonging in a world dominated by technology drives the
desire for immersive, intense, off-the-beaten track experiences. However, we also see social
media playing an increased role in holiday-booking. Lured in by others’ experiences on platforms
such as Instagram, new embedded links allow for direct booking from stories.

Micro trends and experience economy

As the experience economy is now mainstream, how will it evolve and what are the micro or sub
trends that will shape its future? Penn (2007) and Penn and Fineman (2018) note that micro
trends illustrate the changes that are occurring in the experience economy and that they are
consumer focused. Key micro trends are as follows.

Micro trend: once is never enough


Millions of lives are now no longer marked by “things will never be the same after this” moments.
Fewer people will face only one wedding ceremony or cohabit with the same person forever.
Fewer individuals will achieve only one major but unitary ambition (e.g. visiting Machu Picchu,
witnessing an eclipse, or completing a marathon). Many will survive life-threatening illnesses only
to face others some time later and then, in due course, survive them too. Across their lives, many
will embark on sequential careers when once upon a time a single one was more than enough.
The essentialism of such elasticated experience is the widespread realisation that no moment, no
choice and no state of affairs is unique and irreversible. The tourism sector has long had to
address the issues of long distance and big spend or how to tempt consumers into taking
perhaps unusually expensive vacations in far flung destinations. This leads to marketing
promotions which emphasise once in a lifetime or do this before you die aspects. But, as life
extends, affluence stabilises and (even extreme) experiences multiply, there now a generation of
over 65s who will have to make more than one bucket list. Why should a young Californian
backpacker assume that s/he will only visit Machu Picchu once (Yeoman et al., 2012)?

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 20, 2022 at 12:03am

Micro trend: luxury experienced

(Con't)The definition of luxury has shifted to encompass more experiential forms of indulgence,
elevating the value of both unique experiences and everyday moments (Yeoman and
McMahon-Beattie, 2018). Millions in the UK now feel entitled to luxury in some form and while it
is certain that the financial crisis of the late 2000s and early 2010s subdued the growth of
prosperity, our sense of entitlement to luxury is irrepressible (Foresight Factory, 2017; Seo and
Buchanan-Oliver, 2015). As access to luxury becomes more mainstream, however, its very
definition has evolved to carry ever more nuanced associations alongside more traditional ones
(Lee et al., 2015; Hennigs et al., 2015). While the meaning of luxury for many consumers is
rigidly wedded to its classic, traditional definition of expensive, unique material quality, we note
too that intensity of experience is becoming more important to consumers. So too is any form of
indulgence that enables consumers to fulfill their deeper psychic ambitions and confirm their
social success and savoir-vivre in the process. Underpinning the luxury experiences (Foresight
Factory, 2019) trend is the notion that the leisure activities should contribute to one’s skill set,
cultural awareness or even character. Indeed, it is argued that superior premium experiences
have a lasting impact upon one’s personal outlook and therefore represent an investment. And
that ultimately, such endeavours (and improvements) can be broadcast across networks, both
on and offline


Micro trend: everyday exceptional


Consumers are constantly searching for reasons to break routines and indulge in unscheduled celebration (Yeoman and McMahon-Beattie, 2018). Commercial opportunity lies not just in finding the occasions when consumers party, but also in supplying fresh reasons to celebrate.

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 19, 2022 at 11:59pm

The experience economy: micro trends by Ian Seymour Yeoman and Una McMahon-Beattie

The pretexts for our celebrations are becoming more numerous and more ingenious. In the
social media enhanced lives of millions, few milestones go unmarked and few achievements
undeclared. Energised by dynamic multiculturalism, a globalised events calendar presents
more opportunities to make something special of the day. Many people are comfortable
participating in re-interpretations of celebrations not necessarily rooted in their own religious
practices, national traditions or local cultures. Even specifically national holidays can have an
international appeal. Public enjoyment of all kinds of cultural phenomena, from the season finale
of a favourite TV show to major sporting events and even to political contests, derives as much
from the pretext for the party as the spectacle itself. Consumer enthusiasm for celebrations is
continuously re-ignited and more occasions come to be seen as legitimate pretexts, particularly
in the light of branded energy being devoted to the trend. There is in theory a limit to how many
(more) events or occasions the consumer will be impelled, as well as financially able, to
celebrate (Yeoman et al., 2012).
Micro trend: experience first
The coveting of material goods is being threatened as more consumers come to favour the
experiential over the material. Experiences and stories collected and shared are becoming a
more common way for people to express themselves. Whereas once the designer handbag
was a signal of success in life, now a memory from a faraway land is a marker of a good life
(Silverstein and Fiske, 2003). This opens up significant opportunities for the leisure sector, as
objects are transformed into experiences, and consumers look for ever more exciting and novel
events to discover. One driving motivation for travel is the desire to collect unique experiences;
the ultimate souvenir is a lasting memory. At its fringes this trend boosts interest in rarer
experiences and unvisited places – because a story uncollected by others is more exceptional
and thus more valuable (De La Paz, 2009; Howison et al., 2017; Ogilvy, 2005). The increasing
ability to personalise trips and create bespoke tours, even for travellers on a budget, gives rise
to a wider range of unique experiences which everyone feels entitled to enjoy. Many experience
led holidays focus on disconnecting from the internet, to further absorb oneself in the present
(Boyle, 2005; Collins and Weiss, 2015; MacLaren et al., 2013). A craving for meaningful human
interactions and a sense of belonging in a world dominated by technology drives the desire for
immersive, intense, off-the-beaten track experiences (Foresight Factory, 2019; Yeoman and
McMahon-Beattie, 2018).

Conclusion
The experience economy is a fluid concept and that fluidity is a representation of its future and transformation. Tourism experiences include everything from a Michelin meal in an exclusive restaurant to an encounter with a Kingfisher bird while on a nature adventure. Indeed, the desire for new and enriching experiences is growing exponentially and those providers that deliver experiential value beyond basic function will be particularly successful. Experience-hungry tourists will actively seek experiences that offer new skill acquisition, have a sense of purpose and
are associated with aspirational value.(JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES j VOL. 5 NO. 2 2019, pp. 114-119)

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on May 9, 2022 at 10:34pm

歷史省思與舞蹈體驗設計

(略)
而偶然間一次參與雲門舞集的舞者講述舞作的時代背景的小型集會的經驗,亦令其始能體會台灣的歷史境遇與成員處境:那晚的演講精彩極了,細數雲門舞集點點滴滴……講到雲門舞集一個代表作《薪傳》,是一個充滿外放的力量的舞蹈,講的是從唐山過台灣的故事,演員們做了大量的功課,田野考察,在河邊想像父輩從大陸來時的情景,會怎麼樣搬石頭,怎麼樣抬腳?等等……
(胡紹嘉《旅歷台灣,返想中國:一位來台陸生的跨文化敘事與認同重構》新聞學研究‧ 第一一一期,2012年4月 頁43-87 / 胡紹嘉為世新大學口語傳播學系副教授,e-mail: hsj@cc.shu.edu.tw。)

Comment by 私貨珍藏 on November 30, 2021 at 12:25pm


徐賁《詩性人類學的群眾理論》
 

埃利亞斯·卡內提(Elias Canetti)在他的《群眾與權力》一書中提出的是一種詩性人類學的群眾理論。卡耐提於1925年開始研究群眾,受到奧地利散文家和詩人克勞斯(Karl Kraus,1974-1936)的影響,克勞斯告訴他,無論什麽思想,語言表述一定要清晰。他還受到朋友瓦丁格(Fredl Waldinger)的影響,瓦丁格研究的是佛教和引渡哲學,他的研究讓卡耐提悟出兩個道理,第一,研究群眾不一定要全身心地泡在群眾之中;第二,研究群眾的視野越開闊越好。卡耐提的群眾理論借助了人類學、心理學、社會學、哲學、歷史、政治學等不同學科的材料。〔註1〕卡耐提從1925年到1959年,斷斷續續一共花了34年時間才完成《群眾與權力》一書。他在書中闡述的群眾理論幾乎完全沒有所謂的科學分析範疇,是一種勞森(Richard H. Lawson)所說的“非範疇性歸類”。〔註2〕這形成了卡耐提群眾研究與其它群眾理論以及社會學理論的一個重要區別,那就是,它缺乏人們普遍認可的“科學性”,但卻富有一般群眾理論所缺乏的特殊人文想像和魅力。

 

卡耐提在引述各種歷史記錄和人類文獻的同時,不斷作出他自己的解釋,他采取的是一種夾敘夾議的方式。跟著他的思路,讀者自會感覺出其中的道理。但是,期待清晰論點的讀者卻會覺得從卡耐提那里得不到那種理論的滿足。耐倫(Tom Nairn)曾就此抱怨道,“卡耐提博士從來不用他的資料來論述關於群眾、歷史、心理學或別的什麽的論點。他只是在做雄辯的演說。”〔註3〕耐倫在卡耐提那里尋找論點,得到的卻是辯才。但是,正如羅卜遜(R. Robertson)所說,我們不妨把卡耐提群眾理論中的那種高度混合的“描述”和“解釋”的表述看成是一種“歷史人類學”的“深度描述”(thick description)。〔註4〕

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, iconada.tv supports creators since July, 2009.

Videos

  • Add Videos
  • View All