Dr Barker, Thomas (University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus)
Dr Lee Yuen Beng Adrian (Universiti Sains Malaysia)
Lim Rui Lin (University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus)
Loke Elween (Universiti Sains Malaysia)

Presented at
CAMDEN2: Trends in Culture, Arts and Media Symposium
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
9 February 2015


The Malaysian government has set itself the ambitious target in Wawasan 2020 of becoming a
developed nation by 2020 (Unit Perancang Ekonomi, 2013). Under Wawasan 2020 Malaysia hopes
to be a high income nation with corresponding levels of infrastructure, economic diversity, and
social harmony. With five years to go before this vision needs to become reality, Malaysia is
struggling against a number of ongoing problems including increased social division and tension,
brain drain, corruption, and a policy environment that does not always produce desired outcomes.
Over the past ten years, the creative industries have increasingly been touted as an economic
sector that would be essential to fulfilling the goals of Wawasan 2020. It is expected that the
creative industries will contribute RM33 billion to Malaysia’s GDP by 2020, up from RM9.4 billion in 2012 (“Rais,” 2012).
(Featured Photo:Operalady by Soubhagya Jena

The creative industries have attracted policy attention globally because they have been recognised
as an essential component of post-industrial economies in which forms of knowledge and
information are deployed to generate economic wealth. In a 2014 speech, Prime Minister Najib
Razak proclaimed that the creative industries have “a really big potential to contribute to the GDP” (“Government to continue,” 2014). In 2009 the Dasar Industri Kreatif Negara (DIKN, National
Creative Industry Plan) was launched, outlining the direction and content of Malaysian creative
industries policy in the decade ahead (Menteri Penerangan Komunikasi dan Kebudayaan [MPKK],
2009). Since 2009 Malaysia has been able to boast of creative industries success with the ongoing
success of animated TV series Upin & Ipin (2007) which has been exported to Indonesia, local
office of Rhythm & Hues contributing to the Oscar-winning special effects in the Hollywood movie
The Life of Pi (2012), and Tomato Animation’s Chinese Zombie War games finding markets in
China, Taiwan and Hong Kong (Azizan, 2013).

This paper discusses the DIKN policy paper and the current direction of Creative Industries policy in
Malaysia. In particular it highlights the numerous, often overlapping and confusing, array of policy
initiatives designed to target the creative industries. Some success has been recorded in the
animation and digital media industries which have been a focus of policy attention, but in the film
industry for example which is a staple creative industry, the record of success and policy clarity is
far less apparent. Finally, the paper considers the current projects that are being developed to
boost the creative industries to ask whether they are suitable to the task of building Malaysia’s
creative industries for the transition to developed nation.

Creative Industries and the DIKN

Since the release of the DCMS Creative Industries report in the United Kingdom (Department of
Culture Media and Sport [DCMS], 1998), defining the creative industries, mapping them, and
developing appropriate policy has become increasingly prominent around the world. Urban and
regional administrations from the UK, Hong Kong, Singapore, United States, Australia and other
places have used the DCMS definition as a means to assess and promote their own creative
industries. In the DCMS definition the creative industries are defined as “those industries which
have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property” and for practical purposes, divided into 13 different categories consisting of advertising, architecture, arts and antiques, crafts, design, fashion, film and video, video and computer games, music, performing
arts, publishing, television and radio (DCMS, 1998). By bringing together previously distinct artistic
and cultural fields such as the fine arts (theatre, dance), with cultural industries such as film and
music, with industries creating content such as advertising, policymakers are able to develop a
single policy platform in order to develop the creative industries, especially as generators of new
economic growth and wealth creation.

Other definitions of the creative industries and categorisations have been developed either in
opposition to the DCMS model which is seen as too reductive and policy-driven or by adopting a
more academic approach. One problem that has been noted, is that the concept of the creative
industries has been driven by policymakers rather than academics. Models such as the Concentric
Circles model which categorises industries based on the ratio of cultural and economic input, with
fine arts forming a ‘core’, in an outer ring cultural industries like film, and on the outside industries
such as advertising (Throsby, 2008). WIPO for example emphasises intellectual property as a
common denominator of what are conventionally grouped as creative industries (World Intellectual
Property Organisation, 2003). However it remains the case that there is significant disagreement
and slippage in current definitions, even if it is generally acknowledged that the creative industries
include film, television, digital media, music, theatre and performing arts, and to a lesser extent
fashion, advertising, arts and crafts, and museums.

Malaysia’s DIKN document issued in 2009 is to date the only policy document that defines and
articulates a creative industries policy for Malaysia. When it was launched the DIKN was touted to
empower the creative industries as a whole based on creativity and innovation, thus contributing to a high income economy and to uphold the nation's cultural heritage” (Yatim, 2011). DIKN divides the creative industries into three categories: Creative Multimedia, Creative Cultural Arts, and Creative Cultural Heritage (see Table 1 below). Whereas the DCMS model does not differentiate between different sectors, the DIKN acknowledges that there are technological, creative, and platform differences between the three. It also makes explicit the emphasis given to digital media which has become a focus of government agencies, and the only creative industries sector targeted explicitly in the 2015 Budget (“Bajet 2015,” 2014).

The twin emphasis in the DIKN is on the economic contribution of the creative industries and on
mainstreaming intellectual property. Expanding employment opportunities is emphasised as is the need to find markets overseas and export cultural products. According to the DIKN document, Malaysia’s creative industries contributed only 1.27% to national income, less than half of what comparable countries record (DIKN quotes figures of 3%-5%). Clearly Malaysia finds itself in a
position of relative disadvantage in terms of the size, contribution, status, strength, and visibility of
the creative industries in comparative terms.

As a key policy document for the Creative Industries, what becomes apparent is that the DIKN is
largely just a generic reiteration of creative industries policy from elsewhere. Whilst the document
adopts global lexicon and reference points, it adopts these uncritically and simply uses them as a
glue to bring together so-called ‘creative’ activities being conducted under the purview of various
ministries and agencies. This is evident in the use of ‘kreatif’ in each of the three categories (see
Table 1.). First, there is no explanation as to why the adjective ‘kreatif’ is needed as each category
is coherent without it. Secondly, the use of ‘kreatif’ is problematic in the ‘Cultural Heritage’ category
when used to bring together museums, archives, preservation (pemuliharaan) and restoration
(pemulihan). It is highly debatable whether preservation and restoration are creative activities and
whether archives and museums are creative in the same way as performing arts or advertising, and
if they are, why are art galleries and libraries not included.

More broadly though, despite the DIKN being formulated as a key policy document outlining how to
develop the creative industries Malaysia, it has not featured as a prominent cornerstone or
reference point for subsequent policy aimed at the creative industries. Despite the DIKN being a
foundational document, in the period since its publication there has been no clear development of
creative industries policy based on or that builds on the DIKN. All the DIKN does is to compile in one document the range of government initiatives that can be classed as promoting the creative
industries under one umbrella called the DIKN. It is nothing more than an umbrella document, and
not a radical rethink or reformulation of the current policy environment. Instead, Malaysian
government policy comes from an array of agencies and through an array of policy initiatives which
as the next section shows, are multiple and complex. There is no effort here to develop much
beyond the recognition that the creative industries need to be developed.

Current Creative Industries Policy

Malaysia’ current policy response and environment for creative industries is somewhat muddled and
confusing with multiple agencies, schemes, and programmes. Most explicit creative industries policy
is implemented by one of two ministries: Ministry of Communication Media (MCMM) or PEMANDU,
the Prime Minister’s Office, but may also come from Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage
(Kementerian Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan Warisan). MCMM and PEMANDU operate a number of
different schemes and programmes, designed to encourage and support certain types of work.
Under MCMM sits the important agencies Multimedia Development Corporation (MDEC),
Perbadanan Kemajuan Filem Nasional Malaysia (FINAS) and Malaysian Communications And
Multimedia Commission (MCMC). PEMANDU oversees the Economic Transformation Programme
(ETP) whose goals are closely aligned with Wawasan 2020.

Since the late 1990s, MDEC has been responsible for overseeing the MSC (Multimedia
Supercorridor) and within it the development of digital and technology related industries. The MSC
was envisaged as a kind of technology corridor, similar to Silicon Valley in California, that would
extend from Central Kuala Lumpur down to the administrative centre of Putrajaya and the new
technology centre of Cyberjaya. MDEC’s emphasis is clearly on developing technology based
industries especially those operating in the digital economy, with high speed internet a centrepiece
of the MSC plan. In the Creative Multimedia Cluster (CMC) of MSC status companies, MDEC (2014)
records 399 companies including 104 animation companies, 52 games companies, 100 in film, TV
and VFX, and 54 in new media. Table 2 above records the economic contribution of the companies
in the CMC.

MSC and MDeC have placed significant emphasis on developing digital and new media companies
working in app and software development, animation, digital effects, and so on. To that end, they
have recorded some significant success, especially the support and promotion given to Les'
Copaque Production (bought by Disney in December 2014) who developed the Upin & Ipin
animation series. Another successful MSC-status company was Cyberjaya based subsidiary of the
Californian effects company Rhythm & Hues who employ over 150 artists and others. Rhythm &
Hues went on to win an Oscar for their work on The Life of Pi (2012) which included work from the
Malaysian team.

Yet these strategies have their problems which remain quite fundamental including the availability
of creative talent, long-term viability, and broader eco-system. For example, just before Rhythm &
Hues won the Oscar, the US-based company went into administration, bankrupted by increased
cost pressures despite the company’s outsourcing of labour to its offices in Malaysia, Taiwan, and
India. Luckily for the Malaysia office, the local CEO was able to acquire the company, renaming it as
Tau Films, and to keep the business operating. Yet it shows how tenuous the MSC strategy can be
if it involves foreign companies opening an office to take advantage of the cheaper labour and
operating costs. As many analysts have noted with out-sourcing regimes in general, a company
may just as easily move to another country or jurisdiction if it feels the operating costs and benefits
are more to its favour.

Similarly, the question of creativity itself is problematic here if the Malaysian subsidiary of a
California-based company is used to outsource technical tasks from head office in California. This
means that the major decision making still occurs in the US. Malaysian artists working on the film
may be highly skilled, and solving technical problems, for example how to texture the tiger’s fur for
The Life of Pi, but this is a different role and process compared to the decisions made in
consultation with the film production company. Animation and effects work is celebrated
domestically as a success story of creativity, and looks to be creative because of the use of
computers and new media, but the actual creativity involved and the relationship between
Malaysian subsidiary and its US parent company needs to be interrogated.

In part the emphasis on digital can be seen as not only embracing new technologies and new
opportunities, but escaping the structures and limitations of legacy cultural industries such as film
and television. Policymakers, businesses and entrepreneurs are able to start afresh without having
to deal with established players and agencies such as ruling party owned production company.

According to the repot, only 304 of the 399 companies are listed as active.

Media Prima who dominate in the television space or the national film agency FINAS. Moreover
digital is a new space that offers more global opportunities, and less encumbered by many of the
content problems that film and television have to deal with such as language. Computer games or
video effects can be made ‘culturally odourless’ (Iwabuchi, 2002). For example, Piktochart
( and MyTeksi ( also known as GrabTaxi, are
both Malaysian born products but nothing from their design, content and function betray their
Malaysian origins. When products are culturally specific their market is often limited, as is the case
of Upin & Ipin which has only found export markets in Indonesia.

Following the DIKN in 2009, more programmes were introduced targeting growth and development
in the creative industries. These included the RM200 million Creative Industry Fund introduced in
2010 for individuals and companies, especially those engaged in marketing their products in both
the local and global markets. The local animation industry due to its digital content and its potential
for to reach worldwide, was given priority for the funding. From 2011 to 2014, MCMC administered
the Creative Industry Development Fund (CIDF) allocating RM100 million for development of
content for TV, mobile and internet. When the CIDF was ended in June 2014, a total of 44 projects
had been funded, and 39 had been launched (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia
Commission, 2014).

In the 2012 Budget, the Prime Minister of Malaysia announced another RM 200 million for the
development of the creative industry. The initiative involved setting up MyCreative Ventures, a
government investment arm, to administer loans to creative industry businesses following the DIKN
schema. Whereas banks are typically reluctant to provide loans to non-traditional businesses,
MyCreative Ventures is designed to support creative industries businesses who may have a different
cash flow and financial plan compared to normal bricks-and-mortar businesses. In February 2014,
MyCreative Ventures announced investments totaling RM 21 million in 15 businesses (MyCreative
Ventures, 2014). These included a number of fashion houses/designers, music, film, and crafts

Later in 2012, the government through PEMANDU and FINAS implemented a program called the
Creative Industry Lifelong Learning Programme (CILLP) under the purview of the Economic
Transformation Programme (ETP). In part its rationale states that “although there appears to be
enough talent to meet the demand, the industry has however expressed serious concern over the
quality and skills of talent pool” ( Rather than a government agency, CCIG (Creative
Content Industry Guide) an independent NGO organization registered as the Registrar of Societies
Malaysia in the year 2011, was chosen to lead the initiative. CCIG aims to increase relevant skills for
creative content practitioners, inspired by the “lifelong learning” principle that aimed to improve
knowledge, skills and competence within personal, civic, social perspectives. There are four
schemes in the program, namely the up-skilling and re-skilling scheme, internship scheme,
attachment scheme, and creative skills certifications. The field of study in the schemes mostly
include of producing and directing, scripting and screen adaption, animation, games development,visual and special effects, sound effects and production support services. The scheme includes a series of short courses and workshops. Successful applicants must work in the Creative Multimedia Industry for a maximum period of three years.

Also in 2012, the Creative Content Association Malaysia (CCAM) was established under PEMANDU ETP.

The CCAM aims to act as a forum for creative industry players to network and come together,
and for “promoting and exporting local content and creative services to overseas markets and
international broadcasters”. CCAM is headed by Mohd Mahyidin Mustakim CEO of Straits Films Sdn
Bhd, and former head of FINAS and Pesona Pictures. Its board members includes people Astro
(Khairul Anwar Salleh, VP, Malay Language Business), and Media Prima (COO Kamal Khalid) and an Advisory Panel comprising FINAS, RTM, MDeC and ETP. The establishment-bias of its organisational structure and its embeddedness in existing government agencies (FINAS for example) puts into doubt its ability to live up to its industry mandate or represent smaller, independent players in the creative industries. Whether it can serve the interests of the creative industries as a whole, or
merely the interests of its large members (Media Prima, Astro, etc), remains to be seen.

In the five years since the DIKN, a number of programmes and initiatives have been implemented
to develop and grow the creative industries through funding or on skills development. There seems
to be significant duplication, especially in the funding programmes and as researchers we have
struggled to find detailed information about who has been receiving their funds and whether the
funding has been well-used, raising questions of transparency (“Najib not doing,” 2013). In Budget
2015 another RM100 million was allocated for the Dana Industri Kandungan Digital (Digital Industry
Fund) to be administered by the MCMM (“Bujet 2015,” 2014). Despite over RM600 million being
budgeted for the creative industries, information remains scarce about its effectiveness. Creative
industries policy should not just fund productions or companies as this is typically short-term and
unsustainable. So far, little attention has been given to the structures, eco-systems, and broader
concerns that those in the creative industries might have. These would be more fundamental and
structural issues.

FINAS and the Film Industry

Whilst the emphasis has been on digital media, the film industry is one of the key industries in any
creative industries policy constellation. FINAS was established in 1981 to support and develop the
film industry, especially in taking Malaysian productions overseas (Perbadanan Kemajuan Filem
Nasional Malaysia [FINAS], 2014). FINAS operates a number of support initiatives including a 30%
Entertainment Tax Rebate for local films, since 2013 Film-in-Malaysia Incentive (FIMI) which offers
a 30% cash rebate to foreign productions, and some funding for feature film production. Before
FIMI, Malaysia had already been used as a production location including for Anna and the King
(1999) starring Chow Yun-Fat and Jodie Foster, Police Story 3 (2011) starring Jackie Chan, and
Entrapment (1999) starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones. With the completion of
Pinewood Studios Iskandar in Johor state in 2010, it is hoped more foreign productions will utilise

the production facilities and sound stages and the 30% cash rebate (Film-in-Malaysia Incentive
2013). Blackhat (2015) is the first foreign film made in Malaysia since FIIMI was introduced in 2013.
Recent productions that have used the Pinewood Iskandar facilities include 10 episodes of the
Netflix series Marco Polo (2014) and in 2015 the RM50 million (USD15 million) Chinese production
Alien City (“Hollywood film,” 2014). Although it must be noted that they are only partially produced
in Malaysia.

At the same time, FINAS has been marred in controversy due an overtly political role it often takes.
This was most clearly seen in its backing for the film Tanda Putera (2013), a film that dramatised
events surrounding the 1969 Race Riots that remain a sensitive and powerful topic in Malaysian
politics and history. Directed by Shuhaimi Baba, the brother in law of FINAS director Raja Rozaimie,
Tanda Putera courted controversy for its portrayal of ethnic Chinese and the opposition party the
DAP as instigators and perpetrators of the riots. The film was also expensive, costing RM 4,700,000
where average feature film production is half that. The film was banned in Penang, a state held by
the opposition, and played to largely empty cinemas in other states, taking only RM 930,000 at the
box-office, despite government directives for civil servants to support the film. As a highly
contentious and divisive film, FINAS not only endorsed this film and its message but funded it,
raising suspicions that FINAS was playing an ideological role in supporting pro-government history.
Local ethnic Chinese filmmakers have also complained about FINAS not giving rebates to their films.

Profitable local films are eligible for a 30% Entertainment Tax rebate, but until 2010 the rebate was
only available for films with 60% of dialogue in Bahasa Malaysia. The filmmakers behind the
successful Ice Kacang Puppy Love (2010) challenged what they perceived as discrimination because
their film was not in Bahasa Malaysia, despite being a Malaysian film. Films made in minority
languages (Cantonese, Hokkien, Tamil) or indeed English would not qualify for the rebate. Under
pressure from protest and the local media, FINAS changed the criteria so that a film could be
considered “local” and thus qualify for the rebate if the film was subtitled in Bahasa Malaysia, at
least half the film was produced in Malaysia, and at least 51% of the movie rights were owned by
Malaysians. Whilst it is understandable that FINAS would want to support the use of the national
language in film, the way in which the rebate was applied was seen as discriminatory and unfair,
rather than supportive. It was only through pressure from filmmakers and the media that this policy
was changed, and not from any desire to align FINAS policies with the economic agenda of DIKN.
More recently in November 2014, around 3000 film and television workers staged a large rally
protesting work conditions in the film and television industries and the inaction of FINAS in
supporting them (Barker, 2014). Driven by prominent directors Jurey Latiff and Othman Hafsham
and actor Gibran Agi, Switch Off began campaigning for greater worker protections, higher pay, a
unified Creative Content Industry Act and a One Stop Centre to better regulate and supervise the
industry (Sia, 2014). What was most telling about the protest was the frustration expressed towards
FINAS who seen to be not doing their job as the agency responsible for promoting, supporting and
regulating the film and TV industries. It had reached a point where crews and workers felt it necessary to go public with their grievances. Some headway was made when FINAS agreed to
discuss establishing a Creative Content Industry Act and Creative Industry Consultative Council.
What the case of FINAS and the film industry overall shows is that legacy government agencies are
encumbered by a perceived political and ideological role, and an inability to adapt to the demands
and realities of a rapidly changing and globalising creative industry. Whereas the DIKN emphasises
the economic potential of the creative industries, agencies such as FINAS seem slow to adapt to
their demands and conditions, and unable to approach film policy in economic, rather than
ideological or political terms. Adapting to the realities of digital production and online distribution
also challenge ways of working and regulation, especially by FINAS which operated during the film
and broadcast eras of the 1980s and 1990s. Similarly, promoting the creative industries is not just
about promotional efforts but also ensuring the conditions of work and labour are fair and in line
with cost of living expectations, as well as labour laws.


The Malaysian government has set itself the ambitious target of becoming a developed nation by
2020 as outlined in Wawasan 2020. Much of the emphasis in Wawasan 2020 is on economic factors
- such as GDP - but becoming developed also entails a range of other indicators. This would include
having a strong and vibrant creative and cultural sector, supported by world class institutions,
support services and facilities, and a supportive policy environment. Whilst the Malaysian
government has begun to articulate a creative industries policy as seen in the DIKN and in various
programmes and initiatives under the MCMM and PEMANDU, it remains the case that the creative
space is still very fragile and contentious, especially considering the experiences in the film industry
which is really an indicator industry. As of Budget 2014, it appears that the DIKN has disappeared
altogether from the Malaysian government’s policy platforms (“Najib not doing,” 2013).

One thread that emerges from the Creative Industries direction adopted by the Malaysian
government over the past decade is the emphasis on the Creative Industries as a technical and
economic, rather than a social or cultural problem. Significant emphasis has been placed on new
and digital technologies through the establishment on the MSC and MDeC in the 1990s, and this
has continued today in the support given to app and software developers, the MSC status
companies in the Creative Multimedia Cluster, and to digital effects and animation. So far, there
seems to be little emphasis given to addressing possible problems in how creative industries are
structured, regulated, or operate and to broader questions about the educational system or urban
planning. The emphasis has also been on mega showcase projects such as Cyberjaya and Pinewood Iskandar, rather than ecosystem and support structure development. Requests by local filmmakers for a dedicated art cinema to screen local productions has fallen on deaf ears. An art cinema might be economically unviable, but the lack of community voice in investment and decision making is telling.

Finally, to return to the vision of Wawasan 2020, the other problem clearly remains domestic
politics and the political environment which continues to manifest forms of censorship,
discrimination, and less than free markets. Given that the creative industries that produce content
rely on the ability to create without fear of prosecution or censure, Malaysia remains fraught by
forms of censorship, easy sedition, and libel. Moreover, the traditional media remains largely illiberal
and owned by ruling party-linked players, who offer little space for challenging or daring work. Of
course, Malaysia may simply sell content to other illiberal countries, but this may not bode well for
the long term, especially given the significant braindrain currently occurring. For Malaysian creative
industries policy to go forward, there needs to be much greater emphasis on the fundamentals.

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SOURCE: Creative_Industries_Policy_in_Malaysia
Ref LINK:Development Issues for the Creative Economy in Malaysia

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Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 17, 2023 at 9:34pm

Budget 2024 a boost for growth of Malaysia’s creative industry, say entertainers, film groups

KUALA LUMPUR, Oct 14 — Various initiatives can be implemented to boost the local arts and creative industry through the allocation of RM160 million under the Malaysia Madani Budget 2024.

Popular composer and rapper Syed Ahmad Syed Abdul Rahman Alhadad or better known as Altimet said the rapid growth of the creative industry can contribute positively to the economic growth of the nation.

“On average, the creative industry in developing countries contribute about six to 10 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP) but in Malaysia, the industry contributes around two per cent.

“Therefore, we, being a part of the creative industry must increase our contribution to at least six per cent of the GDP. To achieve that goal, we need to increase our efforts continuously,” he told Bernama.

Prime Minister Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim when tabling the Budget 2024 in Parliament yesterday announced an allocation of RM160 million to support the creative industry in the country to carry out various initiatives for the benefit of the industry.

From the total, RM60 million will be allocated under the Digital Content Fund to promote local arts as well as support content with national value while RM90 million is for ‘Film in Malaysia Incentive’ to further encourage the production of international-standard films and another RM10 million is to set up the MyCreative Matching Fund Scheme to support young artists in creative project development.

The singer, who is also the State Assemblyman for Lembah Jaya, described the exemption of entertainment duty for stage performances by local artists, reduction to five per cent of entertainment duty as a move in the right direction to revive the creative industry in the country.

“There is also a reduction to 10 per cent of entertainment duty for stage performances by international artists and other entertainment events such as movie screenings, sports events and games.

“To me, it is one little band aid that helps, if we look at Selangor, the 15 per cent tax had been abolished and such incentives will depend on states. For Kuala Lumpur, it was 25 per cent previously and the announcement by the Prime Minister will certainly serve as an encouragement to further develop the local creative industry,” he said.

In the meantime, Persatuan Perfileman Malaysia (Gafema), which comprise seven associations that are involved in the local filming industry were grateful to the government for the consideration and help rendered to develop the creative industry.

Gafema president Pansha said the allocation of RM90 million can serve as a tonic to encourage local film producers to produce films of international standards.

The prime minister, when tabling the budget, said that to encourage the entry of foreign film productions into Malaysia, the government proposes to set a special income tax incentive between zero to 10 per cent to film production companies as well as for foreign actors and filming crew when carrying out their filming activities in Malaysia.

“Some have already chosen Malaysia as an international filming destination and the announcement will serve as an added boost to encourage other international film production companies to choose Malaysia as their preferred destination for filming.

MyCreative Ventures (MyCreative) also described the Budget 2024 as the right move to encourage and assist the creative industry since the creative industry players have been seeking such support from the government for a long time.

The Redholah Arts and Culture chairman Amirul Haswendy Ashari hoped more new artists involved in theatre are given opportunities to showcase their creativity.

KRU Group’s president and chief executive officer Datuk Norman Abdul Halim in welcoming the allocation provided for in the Budget 2024 said the incentives were pragmatic and far-sighted, especially to strengthen the creative industry and encourage investment from the private sector.

In his Facebook posting today, Norman said the reduction of tax for international artists and exemption of duties for local artists will encourage more concerts to be organised, thus providing job opportunities. — Bernama (Saturday, 14 Oct 2023)

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on August 26, 2023 at 3:25pm

ASTiF @ Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Academi of Arts & Creative technology(ASTiF) aims to provide innovative and creative experts, artists, art entrepreneurs the opportunity to uncover new artistic perspectives across disciplines & fields of knowledge in the face of the industrial revolution.——Dean, Academy of Arts & Creative Technology UMS

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on July 14, 2023 at 2:49pm

UNESCO and World Bank launch framework for action for creative cities’ recovery, development and economic growth

21 May 2021/Last update:20 April 2023

UNESCO and the World Bank have partnered for the first time in a joint initiative to enable the cultural and creative industries in cities as part of their recovery and development during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

In their position paper published on 21 May, UNESCO and the World Bank present the Cities, Culture, and Creativity Framework for action for cities to be more creative by enabling sustainable ecosystems in which cultural and creative industries can attain their full potential to contribute to economic growth, urban vibrancy, social inclusion and innovation.

The creative economy is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the world economy. It generates income, creates jobs and brings in export revenue. Cultural and creative industries contribute annual global revenues of US$2,250 billion and exports of over US$250 billion, and they provide nearly 30 million jobs worldwide and employing more people aged 15−29 than any other sector. At a time when the culture sector has been devastated globally by the COVID-19 crisis, the cultural and creative industries have an untapped potential to help the world’s cities recover and gain resilience.

Cities, Culture, and Creativity draws on global studies and lessons learnt from nine different cities in all regions, from Brazzaville to Madaba to Seoul, which have collaborated with the World Bank and UNESCO, and have harnessed their creativity, achieving positive socio-economic outcomes. It highlights integrated policies and interventions in six areas that can enable the emergence of creative cities: urban infrastructure and livability, skills and innovation, networks and financial support, inclusive institutions and regulations, uniqueness and the digital environment.

Guiding principles and recommendations are provided, offering concrete examples of short and long-term policies, programmes, and investments that cities can put in place to help them recover from the ongoing pandemic and its toll on economies by creating a lasting, enabling environment for the cultural and creative industries to thrive in.

The framework is expected to be implemented through a series of joint UNESCO-World Bank pilot projects in different regions of the world. Cities, Culture, and Creativity is being launched at the 21 May 2021 high-level event on Culture and Sustainable Development organized by the President of the United Nations General Assembly in partnership with UNESCO. (

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 23, 2022 at 11:12am

Intercultural Perspective on Impact of Video Games on Players: Insights from a Systematic Review of Recent Literature by Elena Shliakhovchuk & Adolfo Muñoz García

The video-game industry has become a significant force in the business and entertainment world. Video games have
become so widespread and pervasive that they are now considered a part of the mass media, a common method of storytelling and representation.
Despite the massive popularity of video games, their increasing variety, and the diversification of the player base, until very recently little attention was devoted to understanding how playing video

games affects the way people think and collaborate across cultures.

This paper examines the recent literature regarding the impact of video games on players from an intercultural perspective. Sixty-two studies are identified whose aim is
to analyze behavioral-change, content understanding, knowledge acquisition, and perceptional impacts. Their findings suggest that video games have the potential to help to acquire cultural knowledge and develop intercultural literacy, socio-cultural literacy, cultural awareness, self-awareness, and the cultural understanding of different geopolitical spaces, to reinforce or weaken stereotypes, and to some extent also facilitate the development of intercultural skills.

The paper provides valuable insights to the scholars, teachers, and practitioners of cultural studies, education, social studies, as well as to the researchers, pointing out areas for future research.

Keywords:video games • intercultural skills • digital game-based learning • impact of video games • educational technology

Citation: Shliakhovchuk, E., & Muñoz García, A. (2020). Intercultural perspective on impact of video games on players: Insights from a systematic review of recent literature. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 20(1), 40 - 58.

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 20, 2022 at 9:12am

CCI: University Business Incubators' Response

According to the information compiled, it is possible to observe that most of the top 13 incubators, according to UBI Index 2016, have creative economy as a strong pillar. Even the ones that did not start investing in it have gone through changes and nowadays invest in these economic sectors, by elaborating hubs and coworking or incorporat-ing startups that have one or more of the subsectors of the creative economy as the main basis of their products.In general, the incubators analyzed work directly with the creative economy or with technology, which is, never-theless, somehow connected with creative economy. Beyond that, there are incubators that still do not focus on the creative economy, as the Huazhong University of Sci-ence and the Technology National Science Park in China, ATP Innovations in Australia, and The DMZ - Ryerson Uni-versity and Innovate Calgary, both in Canada. Still, these countries are investing on it, and this sector is rising. One example is Australia, which had an enormous growth in the jobs in the creative economy from 2006 until 2011, even surpassing the job growth in other areas.As it can be seen, therefore, the rise of the creative economy is not only occurring in Brazil, but all over the world. Due to that, it can be concluded that the creative economy is currently a key element for innovation and that all incubators are beginning to integrate it and in-crease the importance of this area in their work. (RESPONSES FROM INCUBATORS TO THE CREATIVE ECONOMY by Julia Zardojuliaz & Brazil.Ruth Mello, Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management Volume 15, Número 3, 2018, pp. 444-452)

Design CCI:

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 19, 2022 at 9:14am

Importance of using art and culture in stimulating state economy

Harvey Stewart August 2, 2019

Arts and culture-related industries provide direct economic growth for the state and local communities. They are important complements to community development and enriching local amenities. Arts and culture create job opportunities and also stimulates local economies through consumer purchases and tourism. Tourism centered on culture and arts contribute greatly to state economic growth by providing attracting revenues. This creative sector attracts young talented workers to participate in the contemporary workforce. Here are some ways on how the state can incorporate arts and culture for state economic development.

1 Understand your states cultural industries

Every state should measure its creative economy. For a better understanding about the economic benefit of these creative industries the state can map their cultural and art assets. This includes maintaining arts industry data and performing an ongoing inventory of art assets. Performing an ongoing inventory helps to gauge the contribution of art and culture on a state’s economy. This enables them to maintain important data on arts and culture that can be used to inform state economic development strategies. The collected data is used in formulating local economic development, tourism initiatives, and coordinate cultural development efforts. Creative industries are so important in states and local economic development and since this impact is always underestimated special attention should be devoted to them.

2 Develop strategies to support culture and art sectors

A state should adopt specific programs or initiatives designed to advance economic growth through arts. This can be achieved through the following essential parts of state arts infrastructure:

Supporting individual entrepreneurs-Individual artists are important producers in any state’s cultural economy. To support their role states are using small grants to encourage creative individuals, entrepreneurs, and career advancement among artists. This artist entrepreneurial grant offers the opportunity for artists to improve their business acumen.

Public-private partnerships-States partnership with any key area industries will increase their capacity to develop a creative workforce. Many local –levels successes suggests that such strategies are promising since they provide technical assistance in areas such as planning and marketing. This fosters significant growth in the country’s cultural sector.

Target specific sectors- States have identified various creative industries that offer significant economic growth. They include film, crafts, design and environmental arts. This help in adopting different strategies such as training programs, to encourage growth in the industry.

Strengthen the nonprofit arts and cultural infrastructure-Most non-profits serves as incubators, training, education or planning services for entrepreneurs and creative businesses. As the state tries to foster economic growth in the arts they should ensure that the nonprofits have the capacity to contribute to the economic development.

3 Include the art and culture into statewide planning

After analyzing cultural assets states should use that information to devise the economic benefits to the creative industries on a statewide basis. Such strategies will identify new opportunities and reveal potential partners to further art-driven economic development in the state. Here are the key elements of a good planning process:

Seek input from stakeholders-This includes identifying the right people to lead to the success of the planning efforts. A common strategy is to establish office charged with advancing the state economy through arts. This office is charged with monitoring information about the creative economy and its impact on state’s economy. This really fosters creative industry development and tourism.

Identify a vision-The leadership body should develop a specific vision for incorporating arts and culture in states economic development. This lays a foundation for business development and attracts creative workers. States have created economic development plans which are designed to use state’s cultural assets to spur economic growth.

4 The creative industries as economic assets

Arts and cultural industries are good examples of economic assets. This industry provides job and stimulates local economies through tourism and consumer purchases. Industries that comprise of art and culture sector includes crafts, advertising, graphic arts and cultural tourism. Creative industries contribute directly to the states economies through tax generation. The arts and culture industry offers the statewide economic benefits which include:

Attracting tourism dollars -audiences drawn to arts and cultural events not only spend money on the events but also contribute to the local economies by dining in restaurants, purchasing gifts and services in the community.

Helping weak economic areas -Creative industries can benefit residents in rural areas and urban core. This is achieved by linking artists with entrepreneurial opportunities both inside and beyond their region. This offers many economic development opportunities.

5 Incorporate the arts into a state tourism strategy

Strengthening tourism is the main state art strategy. Cultural tourism is becoming increasingly popular and thus becoming the key component of economic growth. According to Partners in Tourism culture, heritage and tourism are the main components of a sustainable economy. States have developed innovative strategies to encourage cultural tourism planning and marketing their unique arts. This attracts more visitors and multiplies the impact of tourism on state economic development.


States can use the arts to boost their economies in a variety of ways from community development and promoting arts assets as boosts to cultural tourism. They should also adopt strategies that support and strengthen their creative industries. States can support the inclusion of arts in community development strategies by offering grants and creating public space for arts. This way states will reap numerous benefits that help generate stable and more livable communities.


Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 18, 2022 at 8:23am

Behind the growth of Malaysia’s digital creative content startups by Stefanie Yeo

Many things come to mind when one thinks about Malaysia. The country is a key producer of rubber and palm oil, an industrial powerhouse, and a popular tourist destination. But it is also the home of a booming digital creative content scene.

In 2020, Malaysia’s gaming market stood at US$786 million, which made it the third largest in Southeast Asia. Its animation industry was valued at over US$1.6 billion in the same year, with exports in the sector standing at over US$285 million, doubling from 2014. Local animation studios also produced more than 65 original pieces of intellectual property, creating nearly US$40.5 million in export value and expanding its presence to more than 120 countries.

The products of Malaysia’s digital creative industry have also received recognition around the world. Programs such as Upin and Ipin, which explores the adventures of two twin brothers, and Mechamato, which revolves around a boy and his robot companion, have reached global audiences. Meanwhile, games like multiplayer arena brawler GigaBash and action-adventure title No Straight Roads have won accolades at international competitions.

In 2020, Malaysia’s gaming market stood at US$786 million, which made it the third largest in Southeast Asia. Its animation industry was valued at over US$1.6 billion in the same year, with exports in the sector standing at over US$285 million, doubling from 2014. Local animation studios also produced more than 65 original pieces of intellectual property, creating nearly US$40.5 million in export value and expanding its presence to more than 120 countries.

The products of Malaysia’s digital creative industry have also received recognition around the world. Programs such as Upin and Ipin, which explores the adventures of two twin brothers, and Mechamato, which revolves around a boy and his robot companion, have reached global audiences. Meanwhile, games like multiplayer arena brawler GigaBash and action-adventure title No Straight Roads have won accolades at international competitions.

First, the digital creative industry has been put forward as a key driver of the post-pandemic economy in Southeast Asia. This is a result of rapid digitalization and a growing generation of millennials and Gen-Z consumers who value experiences and entertainment, alongside an even greater demand for digital content globally.

Second, digital creative content provides a way for many key skills in tech to be utilized.

“Digital content is based on established digital creative skills and tech, such as programming, design, art, and narrative construction,” explains Aziz. “Not only does it help train essential base skills, it also allows room for innovation and creates opportunities to explore use cases for new tech, such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and blockchain.”

First, the digital creative industry has been put forward as a key driver of the post-pandemic economy in Southeast Asia. This is a result of rapid digitalization and a growing generation of millennials and Gen-Z consumers who value experiences and entertainment, alongside an even greater demand for digital content globally.

Second, digital creative content provides a way for many key skills in tech to be utilized.

“Digital content is based on established digital creative skills and tech, such as programming, design, art, and narrative construction,” explains Aziz. “Not only does it help train essential base skills, it also allows room for innovation and creates opportunities to explore use cases for new tech, such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and blockchain.”

Building up a digital creative economy

Given the potential of the digital creative content industry to drive Malaysia’s digital economy, the nation has rolled out several initiatives to help support its growth.

MDEC is leading the Malaysian government’s efforts through the Digital Content Ecosystem (DICE) policy under the Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, which focuses on attracting investments, building up local talent and companies, and strengthening the ecosystem through government and private sector partnerships.

According to Aziz, MDEC’s support of the government’s DICE policy will take form across four areas, namely business development, creative skills and talent, digitalization, and research and partnerships. These include competitions and business-matching opportunities, as well as access to a number of strategic investments and grants to help fuel the growth of local companies.

One Malaysian startup that has benefited from MDEC’s support is content development firm The R&D Studio.

In 2017, the startup participated in MDEC’s Intellectual Property Creators Challenge (now known as the Digital Content Creators Challenge) and won the competition, receiving a 75,000 ringgit (US$17,800) grant to produce its short film Batik Girl. The movie went on to premiere in 17 countries, receive official selections in 28 international film festivals, and win awards in Chile, Japan, and the US.

Aside from the support available in its home turf, The R&D Studio was also able to take advantage of opportunities that MDEC offers to local animation companies that aim to go abroad and tap into new markets.

Alongside two other startups Zappy and Durioo, The R&D Studio exhibited at the Malaysia Pavilion during Expo 2020 Dubai, which was held in January this year. Through the event, the firm was able to exhibit Batik Girl to an even broader audience while connecting to potential clients in the Middle East.

Expo 2020 Dubai also opened up opportunities for Zappy and Durioo. Zappy has worked with a local government in the Middle East on an animation project and is in talks with several companies in Dubai. Meanwhile, Durioo has connected with broadcasters in the Middle East and North Africa to bring its Islamic children’s content to wider audiences.

[Having these startups participate] in Expo 2020 Dubai allows us to give them exposure to global markets, as well as bring the brand name of Malaysian digital content space to the wider audience,” says Aziz.

From Malaysia to the world

The CEO is bullish about the future of Malaysia’s digital creative content economy.

“The future looks good, as is evident by the success seen by startups in the space,” shares Aziz. “These startups represent the funnel of new creators entering the space and are the lifeblood of creativity, and earlier studios have paved the way for other entrants to enter the field.”

“The future looks good, as is evident by the success seen by startups in the space,” shares Aziz. “These startups represent the funnel of new creators entering the space and are the lifeblood of creativity, and earlier studios have paved the way for other entrants to enter the field.”

MDEC will continue to fuel the growth of the country’s digital creative industry, both through supporting startups and developing the necessary talent for keeping the sector going.

“These initiatives will help provide a strong foundation for our growing industry and ensure that there isn’t a lack of talent,” Aziz explains. “With steady flow of talent, infrastructure, and consistent government grants and initiatives, the gaming and animation industry will be able to not just profit, but also fuel the growth of Malaysia’s digital economy.”

As Malaysian content continues to cross borders, the CEO is confident that the country’s startups will be able to reach consumers all over the world.

“As the global audience expands their taste for diverse content, Malaysia with its culture-rich and diverse population would be able to deliver content that is different and unique,” he says.

Currency converted from Malaysian ringgit to US dollar: US$1 = 4.23 ringgit.

(26 Apr 2022

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 15, 2022 at 11:01am

A S.W.O.T Analysis on Malaysian Music Industry
(Other Who Spoke 5 : Fueling the Kreativ Malaysia)

Copyright © 2017 by

Michael Veerapen
Professional Pianist
Diploma, Professional Music
Berklee College of Music

THE ENEMY OF CREATIVE ARTIST IS UNEMPLOYMENT. So how do we deal with this? My approach is really to analyse the strength, weaknesses, opportunities as well as threats of the music industry.


Good demand for live music – Malaysians (especially in the Klang Valley), have always shown a preference for outlets with live music. Musicians who perform Top 40’s, Evergreens, Jazz, R’n’B and other popular genres do not have much difficulty getting work and income from these sources as there are a significant number of places to play in the Klang Valley.

There are a healthy number of local music colleges and universities offering degrees in Non-Classical Music. This assures us of a steady stream of trained musicians. What they now need is some real-world music experience.

Non-Classical music education is a growing industry fuelled by the rise in a number of music colleges and also the keen interest of parents wanting their children to take an interest in music using popular music to keep that interest alive and perhaps sowing seeds for a possible career inmusic.

There has been significant growth in the number of Asian TV Shows, both local and foreign, of the ‘Talent’ genre i.e. Asian versions of ‘American Idol’ type programmes. This means more work for Musicians, Arrangers, Music Producers, Production, Staging, Sound and Lighting persons together with Marketing, Social Media and other spin-offs that ride on these shows such as event management, catering, sound equipment rentals etc.

A good number of Music Festivals (Jazz Festivals in particular) held all over East and West Malaysia helps to keep interest in Live Music alive.


There is inadequate music education in primary and secondary education. There are many reasons for the state of music education in schools but suffice to say, lack of resources and teachers is high on the list. In my opinion, the syllabi for music could do with a revamp to include more popular, and therefore more interesting, genres of music together with the usual emphasis on ‘nation building, patriotic and not forgetting our roots and culture’ types of music that is taught in schools.

Flowing from the above, we face creating Malaysians who are not as developed holistically as our Western counterparts who have displayed a greater understanding and appreciation of the humanities. Take a look at the state of Muzium Negara and compare it to the number of fine Museums in London and it becomes clear.

Wage Stagnation – Live musicians’ wages have remained fairly stagnant over the last 10 to 15 years. Alexis Bistro in Ampang Great Eastern Mall has been paying RM1,500 per night since it opened close to 20 years ago!

Media Coverage – TV and Radio coverage of local musicians and singers remains poor. Musicians have taken to social media to advertise their performances. Some of it is effective but nothing compares with being featured in the Star, NST etc. when it comes to building your reputation and branding.

Decline in the Recording Industry – The Recording Industry has changed largely due to the Internet.The likes of iTunes and Spotify have all contributed to the demise of CD’s and albums. On demand type music purchasing is the norm today. As a result, we have to redefine the meaning of the word ‘Star’ and now view it in terms of Internet language, FB likes, YouTube views, Twitter followers etc. However, it’s exceedingly hard to see where the money is in this. Composer rights and other intellectual property rights are virtually impossible to trace let alone collect.

There is lack of talent development programmes and incentives like grants for special projects and works, study scholarships, endorsements and financial support for talented musicians and artistes.There is also lack of good mentoring programmes where experienced exponents of the artsconstantly interact with younger artistes and share from the wealth of their experience.


Today’s musician and Singers can benefit greatly from good management. Good managementmade all the difference for Superstars like Sudirman. In today’s crowded and highly individualised environment, management services are needed all the more to help artistes develop their own individuality and to make them also commercially successful and move them towards monetisingtheir internet fame. Grooming them to become live acts from just YouTube acts is one such benefit of the right management.

Innovative educational programmes and applications for primary and secondary schools are greatly needed. Apart from developing interest in the humanities and creating a more rounded and developed populace, it also helps to bridge the gap between the haves and the have nots who cannot afford private music lessons for their children.

There is a ‘gap’ between what music graduates are able to do and what the professional music industry wants. Traditionally, this gap have been filled the hard way, what musicians call ‘paying your dues’. A professional post-graduate music school that would totally prepare the graduate for the real world would fill that gap and reduce the time it would take to get up to speed significantly.


It is my observation that the growing gap between the haves and the have nots is not just split along the lines of rich and poor but also along racial lines. Private music education like piano lessons and violin lessons is expensive and Malay participation is not in proportion with the social demographics. These music lessons are primarily among the Chinese with Indians opting for more classical Indian music and dance. Student intake into private music colleges like ICOM and UCSI are by far non-Malays whereas colleges like UITM, Aswara, UM and UPM which are public colleges are primarily Malay.

These disparities place Malay students at a disadvantage when it comes to theprofessional world where non-Malays are entering far more than Malays with the Chinese and Indians getting the better paid jobs as they are better prepared. This disparity must be addressed so that the music industry is well represented by all the races with talent recognition and artistry being the statement we make as a country.

Increasing religious involvement in the arts is a worrisome trend that must be addressed. Moralpolicing and the arts have never worked well. Whereas understanding moral sensitivities of sectors of the public is desired, there should also be understanding from religious authorities as to the nature of art and artistic expression and the importance of the humanities in making us what weare.

As the nation pushes forward with becoming a developed country, the arts and humanities do not factor much in the shaping of the kind of people that we want to be. In the pursuit of economic growth and wealth, the danger of becoming impoverished in arts and culture is real and our leaders must address this and implement policies that not only protect but nurture our artistes and provide for sufficient funding in all our national budgets. (

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 14, 2022 at 10:08am

The Development of Malaysia’s Advertising Industry by Youmo Studio

The Rise of Advertising

Malaysia has had a number of advantages with respect to advertising; for one, the country’s strong infrastructure has made it favourable for advertising in Malaysia to grow in leaps and bounds.

Secondly, the rise in the country’s affluent upper-middle class society has made Malaysia the virtual hub of advertising in Asia. Over the last few years, the advertising landscape in Malaysia has seen a subtle shift, with digital media making bold new strides, and traditional print media innovating to keep pace with its digital counterpart. In Malaysia, traditional advertising continues to be popular for advertising and sales promotion, owing to a number of Malaysians being avid readers; the demand for print media continues to fuel the conventional advertising industry, with a 70% reach across the country.

Digital Advertising: A Game Changer

Digital media consumption continues to enjoy unprecedented growth in Malaysia, year on year. On an average, Malaysians spend around 16 hours per week on their smartphones, a good reason for mobile advertising spending to continue increasing, as more and more users drive an increase in demand for digital content that is available on smartphone. The rise of Internet usage over smartphones has also led to the trend of online shopping via mobile phone; the current year has seen over 1.7 million Malaysians aged 15 and above, shop for products and services online. This is good news for advertising in Malaysia; among the more affluent, this trend means that 25% of Malaysians are shopping for products via their smartphones.

Advertising and Sales Promotion in Malaysia

While both advertising and sales promotion are key concepts of a business, they are not the same thing. While advertising involves touting the advantages and qualities of a product or service, sales promotion is about the short-term sale of the same product or service. While advertising can employ a number of indirect methods to create a desired effect, sales promotions are all about direct methods intended to target an audience and convince them to buy.

Malaysia is on the cusp of exciting changes in the advertising industry; fueled by a largely Internet-savvy population and with award-winning talent, advertising is predicted to grow like never before. (September 26, 2018

Comment by Dokusō-tekina aidea on October 12, 2022 at 11:36pm

Malaysia Design Development Centre (DDEC)

Ditubuhkan pada tahun 2007, DDEC adalah pusat sehenti reka bentuk pilihan usahawan Malaysia. Sehingga kini, DDEC telah banyak membantu usahawan Malaysia memperkukuhkan imej syarikat serta produk dan perkhidmatan yang ditawarkan, melalui pelbagai solusi kreatif.

Dengan 14 tahun pengalaman dalam industri dan barisan pereka berpengalaman dari pelbagai bidang, DDEC menawarkan pengalaman reka bentuk yang dinamik, inovatif dan lestari untuk pelanggan kami dari pelbagai sektor, melalui solusi kreatif yang lengkap. Malah, DDEC adalah pusat sehenti reka bentuk terpilih dalam kalangan usahawan Malaysia untuk ke peringkat yang lebih tinggi.(

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, supports creators since July, 2009.


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