公元399年,晋朝,法顯法師以六十五歲高齡發跡長安,涉流沙、逾蔥嶺,徒步數萬里,遍遊北印,廣參聖跡,學習梵文,抄錄經典,歷時多年,復泛海至獅子國今斯里蘭卡,經耶婆提今印度尼西亞而後返國。時年已八十歲,仍從事佛經翻譯。

公元515年 中國南北朝時代,梁武帝蕭衍極力提倡佛法,其聲望因而遠播於東南亞許多崇奉佛教的國家,狼牙脩亦是其中之一,依照《梁書》卷五十四的《狼牙脩國傳》中記載,在公元515年(天監14年),當時狼牙脩國的國王"婆加達多",派使者阿撤多出使南京,拜見梁武帝。並交給梁武帝國書。狼牙脩的使者阿撤多交給梁武帝國書全文記載在《粱書》。

627年正月,貞觀元年,玄奘一人西行五萬里,歷經艱辛到達印度佛教中心那爛陀寺取真經,前後十七年,遍學了當時大小乘各種學說,一共帶回佛舍利150粒、佛像7尊、經論657部,並長期從事翻譯佛經的工作。玄奘及其弟子翻譯出典75部(1335卷),譯典著作有《大般若經》《心經》《解深密經》《瑜伽師地論》《成唯識論》等。《大唐西域記》十二卷,記述他西遊親身經歷的110個國家及傳聞的28個國家的山川、地邑、物產、習俗等。《西遊記》即以玄奘取經事跡為原型。

公元671,唐朝咸亨二年,唐朝名僧義淨大師曾經由海路到印度取經。由廣州,取道海路,經室利弗逝(蘇門答臘巴鄰旁,Palembang)至印度,一一巡禮鷲峰、雞足山、鹿野苑、祇園精舍等佛教聖跡後,往那爛陀寺勤學十年,後又至蘇門答臘遊學七年。歷遊三十余國,返國時,攜梵本經論約四百部、舍利三百粒至洛陽,武后親至上東門外迎接,敕住佛授記寺。公元695年回國,期間極可能曾在同樣信奉佛教的狼牙脩(Langkasuka 吉打/泰南)停留。

1854
11月至1856年元月,華萊士在砂拉越大森林裡走過的探險之旅。


1855 在山都望政府渡假村做客的華萊士,花了三個晚上寫了一篇論文,提出聞名後世的“砂拉越定律”(Sarawak Law)。


2013 紀念華萊士逝世一百週年的特別年份。



照片说明:砂拉越華族與加央族百年前的的樟腦貿易

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Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 20, 2024 at 10:24am

With the subjugation of ligor by Sukhothai about 1280 the suzerainty over Pahang fell to the Thai in the 14th Century. In the same century Pahang suffered an invasion from Majapahit which thereafter claimed that State as one of its conquests. This raid may have had no lasting effect (20), thought it appeared that it resulted in inter-marriage between members of the ruling family of Majapahit and the princes of Pahang. The Thai over-lords of Ligor apparently did not interfere with the Ligor dynasty in Pahang but they, too, may have contracted marriage alliances with the Pahang royal family. The new empire had arisen in the nor contented itself with exciting tribute from Pahang and establishing settlements in the country.

The Pre-Malaccan people of Pahang lived by mining gold, tin, and iron and planning rice. They left many traces; irrigation works, mine workings, remains of brick building, specimens of Sawankalok pottery, and probably the pottery industry at Kuala Tembeling which has survived through years to the present days. The pre-Malaccan occupied the Tembeling, Thet can be traced as far as south as the Merchong. They extended into the Pahang and the Jelai;their tracks can be found along lake Chini up to the Headwaters of the Rombin; in the old Selinsing mines scoops of Palas wood used by them have been discovered. They left numerous relics in gold-working at Tresang and Sempore. They make their way to bebar, They established settlements at Jeram Kuai (Koi) and Jong Berlabon on the Tembeling, at Lubok Pelang, Lubok Paku, at Chini, at Langgar, at Pengkalan Durian in Ulu Bebar, at pura, and else where. Their occupation is commemorated by the nomenclature of places such as Chini, Parit Siam, Tambak Siam, Lubang Siam (or Lumbong Siam),, Parit Siam, Sungai Lego (Ligor) a tributary of the Tekam in the vicinity of Kota gelanggi. (21)

(Chapter 2, The Pre-Malaccan People, in A History of Pahang, W. Linehan, Silverfish Malaysia Classic Series 18, 2020, Pakka English Enterprise, pg. 15-22, Previously published as Volume XIV Part II, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in May 1936 )

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 8, 2024 at 10:20am


Preserving the Cultural Bond towards Strengthening Sino-Malaysian Friendship

Melestarikan Hubungan Kebudayaan, ke Arah Memperkukuh Persahabatan Malaysia-China

Author: Ku Boon Dar

ABSTRACT

This paper is an attempt to trace the history of traditional friendship between China and Malaysia which had been established since the Han Dynasty. The ties between both countries were further strengthened in the 15th century with the establishment of diplomatic relation between the Ming Dynasty and the Malacca Sultanate. The paper also discusses the diplomatic ties between China and Malaysia which was officially reconciled in 1974 during the second Malaysia Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein’s visit to China. This bilateral relationship has continued to develop
and gained significance with China’s ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative in 2013, which was inspired by China’s president, Xi Jinping. The paper describes the relationship between the two great empires (China and the Malay world), which carries a special significance in the context of the interaction of civilizations. This interaction does not only revolve around the issues of trade, investment and tourism alone but its significance is also visible in various socio-cultural issues especially the development of the Malay language in China.

Keywords: Sino–Malaysian relations; Malay language; Overseas Chinese (Huaqiao); Peranakan Chinese (BabaNyonya); Malayan Communist Party (MCP)

ABSTRAK

Makalah ini menelusuri sejarah panjang persahabatan tradisional antara China dengan Malaysia yang sudah dijalinkan sejak Dinasti Han. Jalinan kedua-dua negara ini terus dimekarkan pada abad ke-15 dengan hubungan Dinasti Ming dengan Kesultanan Melayu Melaka. Seterusnya makalah ini juga membincangkan hubungan diplomatik antara ChinaMalaysia yang dijalinkan semula secara rasmi pada tahun 1974 semasa kunjungan Perdana Menteri Malaysia, Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein ke China. Hubungan dua hala ini telah pesat berkembang sehingga kepada inisiatif ‘One Belt One
Road’ China yang diilhamkan oleh Presiden China, Xi Jinping pada 2013. Makalah ini menjelaskan bahawa hubungan antara dua buah kerajaan besar, yang satu di Asia Timur dan yang satu di alam Melayu itu, mempunyai signifikan yang khusus dalam konteks interaksi tamadun yang bukan hanya berlingkar pada hubungan perdagangan, pelaburan dan pelancongan semata-mata, malah menjangkau kepelbagaian isu-isu sosiobudaya khususnya perkembangan bahasa Melayu di China.

Kata kunci: Hubungan China-Malaysia; bahasa Melayu; Orang Cina Seberang (Huaqiao); Peranakan Cina (BabaNyonya); Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM)

Ku Boon Dar, 2016, Preserving the Cultural Bond towards Strengthening Sino-Malaysian Friendship ,International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation [Iman] 4[3], 2016: 87 – 96 [http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/IMAN-2016-0403-09])

See Also: 海絲路·文化·軟實力

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 8, 2024 at 10:16am

INTRODUCTION

The relationship between China and the Malay world was often strengthen during the Ming Dynasty
with the Malacca Sultanate. In fact, the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Borneo have built ties
with China since the first century even when the country and nation’s entity was still non-existence.
According to archaeological findings found in the Niah Cave (Sarawak), the mural paintings, coffins
made of copper had similarities with the copper coffins found in Guangxi, Guizhou and Sichuan. It
was proven that these coffins were archaeological remains of the Three Kingdom (AD 220-280) war
era in China. In addition, archaeological remains such as the bronze drum unearthed after a flood in
the Temerloh River (Pahang), coins, knives, iron and fishing hooks carved with Chinese characters
was found on the coast of Sarawak also proved that there were initial relation in trades between
the Malays and Chinese (Zhou & Tang 2011: 41).

Majority of the earthenware found in the area was linked to the remains of Han Dynasty (206
BC -220 AD). In addition, the trade relationship between the Malay Peninsular and China can be
seen from the remains of artifacts such as found in the Bujang Valley (Chieh-cha), Kalumpang Island
(Sabah), Matang in Perak, Johor Lama (Lo-Yueh), Singapore, Tioman Island (Tiyumah), Kuala Berang in Terengganu (Fo-lo-an), Pattani, Chaiya and Ligor in Thailand (Zuliskandar & Nik Hassan 2010: 47).

The ports in these states formed trade relationship with China from the artifacts found since the Song Dynasty while the trades in Kedah have begun since the Tang Dynasty (618 – 906 BC). Historian,
K. G. Tregonning (1965: 2) stated that the Malay Peninsular was the port (relay station) for ChinaIndia trades. Indeed, the history of interaction between Malay and Chinese civilization has run long. The Sino-Malaysia cultural exchange was developed out of the trade between China and India, due to the Malay Peninsula’s strategic location on the route of Chinese and Indian sails, the Malay
Peninsula had delevoped transit trade through which its cultural exchange with China had dawned (Zhou & Tang 2011: 12).

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 7, 2024 at 1:04pm

Chinese historical source described the relationship of the Chinese kingdom with the Malay
world in detail from the beginning. It was pioneered clearly during Han Dynasty which was recorded by Han Shi Di Li Zhi, followed by series of relationship with later dynasties. Han Shu Di Li Zhi described the voyage of Emperor Wu Di (140 BC- 87 BC) to Huang Zhi (Kanchipuram) in southeast India with the country in Southeast Asia and South Asia.

In addition, Hou Han Shu also described that in the year 131 AD, the kingdom of Diao Ye believed to
be either in Java or Sumatera has sent tribute to the Chinese emperor and whereby the emperor later awarded a prize to the king in return (Liang Liji 1996: 13).

However, the relationship between China and Malay world was briefly interrupted when stability
in the Han Dynasty was compromised. Hence the relationship with the Malay world is often severed
without continuity. Similarly, at that time, there is no state in the Malay world which has a great and
impactful government that the relationship is not so familiar. However, China’s relations with the
Malay world jumped to a higher level after the rise of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) and in the Malay Srivijaya Empire in the 7th century. The relationship between the two kingdoms of which one was in Southeast Asia while the other from the Malay world, carried a great significant specifically in the context of modern interaction. It was not confined to trades only but transcends to the cultural ties, thoughts and belief system. During Tang dynasty, the Buddhist monks’ activity in Srivijaya became the best means to expand religious teachings outside its territory. At the same time, the old Malay language which was strongly influenced by Sanskrit became the tool to understanding Sanskrit for the Buddhist monks. One of the monk’s well-kept record was documented by Fa-Hsien who have made the sacred journey to India by land across Central Asia.

Paul Wheatley (1961) in his research about the adventures of Fa-Hsien was more likely to follow the opinion of Grimes (1941) which stated that Fa-Hsien has been through passage in the Straits of Malacca before arriving in Borneo or Java as compared to the opinion expressed earlier by Wilson (1838-1839), Sykes (1840-1841) and James Legge (1886) which states that the adventures of Fa-Hsien been through before reaching the Sunda Strait to Borneo (Takakusu 1896). Meanwhile the monk, Yi Jing (I-Ching) who lived for six months in the capital of Srivijaya in 671 AD and later went to Chieh-cha (Kedah) with the mission to enhance his religious study, while helping to expand the spread of Buddhism in the country has clearly shown the close tie between the two countries and civilization.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 7, 2024 at 1:03pm

At the beginning of 673 AD, when the northeast monsoon wind blows, I-Ching begins to cruise through the Bay of Bengal to India. In his voyage, he had stated that after ten days of sailing from Kedah, he arrived in the Kingdom of the Naked People (Nicobar Islands) (Takakusu 1896: 197) and a half months later arrived at Tan-mo-li-ti (Tamralipti). In addition to the question of religion, aspects of customs, etiquette and different culture in Malay has attracted the attention of Yi Jing that the Srivijaya Empire was highly regarded by Tang Dynasty as the centre of civilization in the Malay world. The Chinese kingdom also hopes that the peacefulness will allow diplomatic missions and trades between Southeast Asia who commutes to China will gain benefit in the concept of “de” (德) in the form of harmonious, natural relationship.

“De” is key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated as “inherent character; inner power;
integrity” in Taoism, “moral character; morality” in Confucianism and other contexts and “quality,
virtue” or “merit, virtuous deeds” in Chinese Buddhism.

China not only established relationship with Srivijaya but also with other provinces in the
archipelago such as Siam (Thailand), Burma (Myanmar), Annam (Vietnam), Malacca and Java.
China’s efforts to create a good regional relations was also continued by sending Chinese naval fleet
expedition to Nanyang (southern sea) and other regions. While the Tang Dynasty was ruling China,his ruler had opened seven trade routes with the outside world which was commonly known as the Silk Road.

The Silk Road not only was the trade route for silk but also for various other commodities such as slaves, satin, and many other fine fabrics, musks, other perfumes, spices and medicines, jewels, glassware and rhubarb. One of them is the sea route from Guangzhou to India, Persia and Arab through the Malay world such as the Malay Peninsula, Srivijaya, Java (Ho-ling) and others. This
route is a catalytic activity of cultural exchange and technology as well as the main channel for the dissemination of knowledge, ideology, philosophy and culture which connects traders, merchants, priests, missionaries, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers in China, India, Persia, Asia and Mediterranean for nearly 3,000 years. Trade along the Silk Road is the most important factor driving the development of the great civilizations in China with the outside world. At times, it set up the basis for the development of the modern world (Manchester & Cuno 2007: 8).

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MALAY AND CHINESE RELATION

The close tie between China and the Malay world was continued by Song Dynasty (960– 1279 M)
and Yuan Dynasty (1206–1368 M). During the two dynasties, the relationship with Srivijaya and Java
was focused on trade although aspects of culture follows on. The close relationship between MalayChinese, continues while focused was given on trade relations. Merchandise from Southeast Asia, China, India and West Asia are traded together. Trades through the use of sea route has allowed traders from China to identify the various exotic and valuable commodities. Referring to a source from Han Dynasty, a chapter 28 from a book titled Ch’ien Han Su (Annals of the Early Han Dynasty) of Pan Ku tells a story of Chinese traders who boarded the ship of “barbarian” who were not of Chinese descent, to buy pearls, jewels and other rare commodities (Wheatley 1955). It was estimated about 36 times or an average of three times in a year, messengers from Srivijaya was sent to China in Southeast Asia. As a sign of respect and appreciating good relation with the Chinese kingdom, king of Srivijaya financed the building of temple in Guangzhou city in 1079.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 6, 2024 at 4:25am

However, the height of the relationship between the two civilizations, happened during the Ming
Dynasty in the 15th century that Liang Liji (1996: 12) stated, “this history should be recorded in gold
because of its achievement that is unparalleled in the history of both nations.” This is so because both civilization have reached a diplomatic relationship that is organized both in the politics or trade
relationship as well as culture. Malacca under the rule of King Parameswara (Sultan Iskandar Syah)
became the first destination for Emperor Ming Yongle (1403 – 1424) to come to Malay world in
1403. The history of diplomatic ties between China and Malacca written in Ming Shi Lu. This huge
electronic work of Ming Shi Lu can be accessed via Geoff Wade, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: An Open Access Resource. Singapore: Asia Research Institute and Singapore E-Press a href="http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/%3E" target="_blank">http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/>;.

Rapidity and closeness between the two civilizations is reflected in the fact of some important
and interesting facts. These include the sending of Admiral Zheng He or Sampo Kong (which in Malay history known as Admiral Cheng Ho) with a massive fleet for a goodwill visit to Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia, with the greatest ship can load goods weighing 2,500 tons and a total of 1,000 people. The total number of ships were 100 to 200 ships with the officials, crews and army reaching to 27,000 to 28,000 people on board. Zheng He was the epitome of excellence at world sailing expedition during the 15th century. He is a Muslim and a very well-known sailor, diplomat, a wise war hero, and a daring explorer. Zheng He created history by making seven sailing expedition from China to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and East Africa from 1405 to 1433 (Tan Ta Sen 2009: 155).

Another important factor was the visits made by the Malacca king to China. In 1411, Parameswara
(1344 – c. 1414), the ruler of Malacca along with 540 followers was escorted by Cheng Ho to meet
the third emperor of Ming Dynasty, Yung Lo. The delegation from Malacca was granted yellow
umbrella, a seal and a set of clothing as a sign of recognition from the Chinese kingdom towards the
Malay sultanate of Malacca. Later, envoys from Malacca was sent to China in 1412 and 1413 as a
sign to strengthen the friendship. During the reign of Sultan Mansor Shah (1459 – 1477 M), he also
forge a diplomatic tie with the Chinese kingdom. An envoy with gifts were sent to China. The Chinese Emperor bestowed Princess Hang Li Po upon Sultan Mansor Shah as a decision and acknowledgment of Sultan Mansor Shah as the ruler of Malacca Sultanate. Hence, the Sultan sent the Bendahara Tun Perpatih Putih to escort the award, Princess Hang Li Po to Malacca in 1458 along with 500 of her followers. Princess Hang Li Po was later married to Sultan Mansor Shah in 1459. This envoy and award showed that Malacca and China have entered another phase of long-term relationship between Malacca-China. This forged the relationship between the royal families of two kingdoms.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 5, 2024 at 8:28pm

This historical marriage was commemorated with the building of Hang Li Po’s well. The well never went dry and was the only source of water during the dry season. The Dutch built a wall surrounding the well in 1677 to preserve it as a wishing well. Some said that by tossing coins, they will return to Malacca in the future (Kong Yuanzhi 2000: 68).


The forging of this tie gave an impact and encouragement when Malacca was no longer disturbed by foreign powers like the Siam and Majapahit. This situation has provided an opportunity for Malacca to grow rapidly into a world-class flourishing trading center. Melaka’s monopoly on the China’s commodity has attracted more and more traders to conduct trade in Melaka. Hence, Malacca became the focus of Muslim and non-Muslim traders developing Malacca not only in terms of economy but also socially. This condition allows Malacca to develop rapidly until it became a successful main An in-depth research on the borrowing of Chinese language in Malay Language was conducted by Kong (1993). According to Kamus Dewan (Dictionary of the Malay language, 1970), Kong (1993) concluded that there are 261 Chinese loan words in Malay language. A research by Mashudi and Yeong (1989) stated that there are 341 Chinese loan word in the Malay language. From the number of words, only 90 words are still used while another 251 words were outdated and no longer use. The trading centre (Tan Ta Sen 2009: 156).


LANGUAGE VERSATILITY, ETHNIC DIVERSITY


The friendship between Malacca and China has brought changes in the structure of society in Malaya when there are traders from the other country who migrated to Malacca and got married with the locals. The result of this mixed marriages have created a new group of society called the Peranakan Chinese or better known as Baba Nyonya. “Peranakan” came from the Malay language root word “anak” (child) which means “descendants of Chinese and of another race” or “generations of Chinese born in Malaya”. The name “Baba” is a reference for men while “Nyonya” is used to refer to the women. The existence of the “Peranakan” race linguistically have helped to increase the Malay language vocabulary which came from Hokkien. The process of communication between the two communities have demonstrated the phenomenon of vocabulary adaptation. In such case, the relationship between the Malay and Chinese society have caused the adaptation of Chinese language in Malay language. Some of the vocabulary adapted from Chinese language can be seen below:

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 5, 2024 at 1:30pm

Baba Nyonya society are fluent in Malay language. Although fluent in the Malay language, in the aspects of ideology and spiritually, they still follow their ancestral practices and beliefs. They practise a different lifestyle as a result from the convergence of two different cultures. Until now, they still exist in Malacca and maintain the lifestyle and tradition of their ancestors. The legacy of friendly relations between the Sultanate of Malacca with China also remains to this day. This can be seen in the names of places and the architectural influence which is related to China. The mosques had terraced roofs or pyramid shaped. Chinese pattern carvings are significant and can be seen on roof edges as well as the top of a mosque which can also be seen in Chinese temples. Mosques that have pyramidshaped roof is also in the habit resembling a pagoda tower (Ezrin Arbi 1971). The sino-electic mosque with three roofs were Kampung Hulu, the Tengkera Mosques and Kampung Keling Mosque. They are located in the town of Malacca. Therefore, the mosques have always been the focus of traders in view of its position in the strategic areas of the city.

The mosques are fenced with bricks and stones with an archaic entrance similar to a temple. According to history, the mosques were built by Chinese traders. Hence the Chinese elements and carvings in the architectures. Among the best example was the Kampung Keling mosques which has a pagoda shaped tower and an arched entrance. The mosque is decorated with intricate Chinese carvings in the prayer section and outside the mosque (Ezrin Arbi 1971).

In addition, in the course of close relationship between Malacca and China over a century, since1403 to 1521, it is apparent that there were mutual visits between the two sides, both of which involved kings or rulers with regard to the relation of political trade and culture. Ming Shi Zhong Lu’s record in the fourth edition, listed 57 diplomatic relation between Malacca and Ming Dynasty during that period. The relationship was based on loyalty and mutual respect between both kingdoms. Even though China is a big empire and powerful then, their visits to Malacca was only to show goodwill and for trade. China never planned to conquer or to colonize Malacca.

The relation between the Malay and the Chinese before the occupation of the West, took place inharmoniously and naturally without force. Of course, nothing was termed as a proto- maritime colonialist as it was once touted by Geoff Wade (2004: 10) to the Zheng He delegation to Nanyang.

It was entirely different from the arrival of Western powers to Malacca such as the Portuguese, Dutch and the British who tried to expand their power and influence to Southeast Asia with war and colonization. There lies the uniqueness of Malacca and China’s relationship. It is because the relationship was never to conquer and colonize as what the Western powers were doing in the 16th century. This relationship shows how both sides are interdependent on mutual interest in the political and economic aspects. Mutual respect and recognition of the dignity and sovereignty of each as well as to appreciate the culture and heritage of both sides.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 4, 2024 at 2:06pm

Moreover, there was mutual desire and interest to appreciate the unique treasures of the local culture and civilization. It can be seen in the records by Ma Huan (c. 1380-1460) and Fei Xin (c. 1385-1436) about the situation in Malacca. Generally, Liang Liji (1996) summarized three important things which is a result of the relation and interaction of the two great civilization which can be simplified as such:

1 The establishment of friendship which was mutual in all things such as respect, understanding and appreciation to the extent that no conflicts can affect the friendly relation of both nation.

2 The existence of similar attitude in promoting peace and justice by revoking violence and hostility. This is different from the arrival of the Western fleet with the intent and mission to colonize.

3The existence of economic cooperation in the form of bilateral trade through three systems of that era; the trade between the ruler (in the form of tributes and reply in awards and various valuables), trade between the kingdoms based on the contract of sale of certain goods only to China with prices that favours Malacca and common trade among the general public.

Another benefit that is no less important in the context of civilization is the influence and the expansion of the use of the Malay language as the lingua franca of the Malacca Sultanate era. If during the Srivijaya era had already existed the Chinese Buddhist monk who learnt ancient Malay, hence, during the Malacca Sultanate, the Malay language was not only learnt by the religious ministers but also a language learnt and used to manage trades and livelihood by the Chinese especially among traders.


More important than that was the “royal attention” on the Ming Dynasty when the committee set up interpreters (Da Tong Shi) to meet the interests and needs of external relations. Tong Shi or interpreters who served in 18 sub-committees (Xiao Tong Shi) amounted to 60 people and two were dedicated to the Malay language; one for Malacca and the other for Sumatera. To train interpreters, in 1405, Emperor Ming Yongle established a language academy known as “Si Yi Guan” (Center of Foreign Languages) in the capital of Yingtian Fu (now Nanjing). There were eight departments in the rab, Malacca, Java and others). The foreign language academy lasted over 400 years and extended into the Qing Dynasty from the Ming although its name was changed in 1748 to Hui Tong Si Yi Guan. The role of the academy only stopped after the Opium War in 1840, after the Qing Dynasty faced political instability.


The importance of the Malay language as the language of communication across civilizations created an effort to compile a bilingual dictionary which was important for Chinese traders and others in the interaction in the Malay world. Initial efforts in compiling a bilingual dictionary was traced back as early as 14th century during the era of Emperor Ming Hongwu (1368 – 1399), the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty (Liang Liji 1996: 92).

Related:

海絲路·文化·軟實力

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 2, 2024 at 11:01pm

However, in the dictionary as a list of Chinese words - the word of foreign states (Hua Yi Yi Yu) is not clear if the Malay language is also embodied in it. However, it was found in the 15th century that a Chinese-Malay bilingual dictionary was made as was researched by western scholars such as E. D. Edwards and C. O. Blagden in the 1930s. The title of the dictionary in Chinese was Ma La Jia Guo Yi Yu (A Chinese Vocabulary of Malacca Words and Phrases, 滿剌加館譯語). The words collected in it are believed to include the vocabulary of the early days of the onset of the Ming Dynasty’s relationship with the Malacca Sultanate from 1403 until the fall of Malacca in the hands of the Portuguese in 1511. The dictionary consists of 482 entries of Chinese words which are considered important and categorized into 17 fields namely astronomy, geography, season and time, plants, birds and animals, houses and castles, behaviours, body, gold and jewels, society and history, color, counting and common words. Each entry is given a Malay translation written in Chinese (Liang Liji 1996: 92).

The dictionary was compiled with the needs of the Ming Dynasty to establish a relationship with Malacca. Until the end of the 16th century it was still a reference dictionary, including in the preparation of Chinese history books. Thus, the close and familiar relationship between the two civilizations have also left a large and important impact on the language as well, as evidenced by the widespread role of the Malay language.

The relationship and interaction between the two civilizations was later ended for a long period due to the change in the system in China and from the effects of colonization on Malacca and the Malay kingdom by the Western powers. Only in the 18th century an onwards, the relationship was reconnected however with a pattern that is much different, because the arrival of the Chinese was not sent by the Chinese government on diplomatic relations but rather an attempt by Western colonialists to meet the needs of its economy, with most of the migrants made workers in the tin mines and a number of others trying their luck in business. According to Blythe (1947: 66), 1850 was the date of commencement of a large-scale immigration from mainland China to Peninsular Malaysia. Mc Gee (1964: 70) has noted that the Chinese arrived by the largest numbers between 1880 and 1914. On the contrary, Tregonning (1962) stated that the number of Chinese migration increased from 50,000 in 1880 to 200,000 in 1990 and peaked to a record level of more than 360,000 in 1927. More than 6 million Chinese have signed into colonies and territories under British protection in Peninsular Malaysia (Tregonning, 1962).


History finally gives reference to the pattern of demographic and social system in the Federation of Malaya and then Malaysia when Chinese residents were granted citizenship at the time of the Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957. Now (2014), Chinese makes up 22.6 percent of Malaysian citizen and they contribute to the various cultures through their way of life in the areas of art, festivals, food, clothes, belief system and so on.

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, iconada.tv supports creators since July, 2009.

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