《愛墾網》馬來西亞-台灣墾友於2014年7月23~26日,四天三夜遊走沙巴內陸市鎮丹南(Tenom)。最難忘的,除了陳明發博士、劉富威和張文傑三人的麓夢悠神秘巨石圖騰(Lumuyu Rock Carvings)探險外,要算是丹南—Halogilat鐵路之旅了。最難得的是,這次鐵路遊得到Ken李敬傑、李敬豪兄弟的安排,請到服務沙巴鐵路局34年的蘇少基先生前丹南火車站站長一道同遊。

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Comment by 陳老頭 on February 14, 2024 at 4:10pm

It was stylistic congruency that was manipulated in a couple of experiments, conducted 14At the same time, however, one might consider how marble, one of the most highly prized building materials is in some sense incongruent, given the rich textured patterning of the veined appearance of the surface is typically perfectly smooth to the touch. both online and in the laboratory by Siefkes and Arielli (2015).

These researchers had their participants expli citly concentrate on and evaluate the style of the buildings shown in one of two architectural styles (baroque or modern- a short video showing five baroque build ings; there were also a short video, focusing on five mod ern buildings instead). Their results revealed that the buildings were rated as looking more balanced, more co herent, and to a certain degree, more complete,15 when viewed while listening to music that was congruent (e.g., baroque architecture with baroque music- specifically Georg Philipp Telemann’s, Concerto Grosso in D major, TWV 54:D3 (1716)) rather than incongruent (e.g., bar oque architecture with Philip Glass track from the soundtrack to the movie Koyaanisqatsi).

Before moving on, though, it is worth noting that in this study, as in many of the other studies reported in this section, there is a possibility that the design of the experiments themselves may have resulted in the partici pants concerned paying rather more attention to the at mospheric/environmental cues (and possibly also their congruency) than is normally likely to be the case when, as was mentioned earlier, the architecture itself fades into the background.

Ecological validity may, in other words, have been compromised to a certain degree. One of the other examples of incongruency that one often comes across is linked to the growing interest in biophilic design. As Pallasmaa (1996, p. 41) notes: “A walk through a forest is invigorating and healing due to 15These were the anchors on three of the bipolar semantic differential scales used in this study.

the constant interaction of all sense modalities; Bachelard speaks of ‘the polyphony of the senses’. The eye collaborates with the body and the other senses. One’s sense of reality is strengthened and articulated by this constant interaction. Architecture is essentially an extension of nature into the man-made realm …”16 No wonder, then, that many designers have been exploring the benefits of bringing elements of nature into interior spaces in order to boost the occupants’ mood and aid relaxation (Spence, 2021).

However, one has to ask whether the benefits of adding the sounds of a tropical rainforest to a space such as the shopping area of Glasgow airport, say (Treasure, 2007), really outweigh the cognitive dissonance likely elicited by hearing such sounds in such an incongruous setting? Similarly, a jungle soundscape was incorporated into the children’s section of Harrods London Department store a few years ago (Harrods’ Toy Kingdom- The Sound Agency | Sound Branding” https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVUUG6VvFKQ).

Nature soundscapes have also been introduced into Audi car salesrooms, not to mention BP petrol station toilet facilities (Bashford, 2010;Treasure, 2007). It is worth noting here that given the important role that congruency has been shown to play at the level of multisensory object/ event perception, there is currently a stark paucity of research that has systematically investigated the relevance/ importance of congruency at the level of multisensory ambient, or environmental, cues. As the quotes earlier in this section make clear, it is something to which some architects are undoubtedly sensitive, and on which they already have an opinion. Yet the relevant underpinning research still needs to be conducted.

Comment by 陳老頭 on February 13, 2024 at 7:59pm

Ultimately, therefore, while the congruency of atmos pheric/environmental cues can be defined in various ways, and while incongruency is normally negatively valenced (because it is hard to process),17 issues of (in)congruency may often simply not be an issue for the occupants of specific environments. This may either be because the latter simply do not pay attention to the at
mospheric/environmental cues (and hence do not register their incongruency) and/or because they have no reason to believe that the stimuli should be combined in the first place.16

The value of connecting with nature in architectural design practice was stressed by an advertorial for an arctic hideaway that suggests that: “True luxury today is connecting with nature and feeling that your senses work again” as appeared in an article in Blue Wings magazine (December 2019, p. 38). 17

It should, though, be remembered, that sometimes incongruency may be precisely what is wanted. Just take the following quote regarding the crossmodal contrast of thermal heat combined with
visual coolness from Japan as but one example: “In the summer the householder likes to hang a picture of a waterfall, a mountain stream, or similar view in the Tokonama and enjoy in its contemplation a feeling of coolness.” (Tetsuro, 1955, p. 16).

Sensory dominance

One common feature of configurations of multisensory stimuli that are in some sense incongruent is sensory dominance. And very often, under laboratory conditions, this tends to be vision that dominates (e.g., Hutmacher, 2019; Meijer et al., 2019; Posner et al., 1976). Under conditions of multisensory conflict, the normally more reliable sense sometimes completely dominates the
experience of the other senses, as when wine experts can be tricked into thinking that they are drinking red or rosé wine simply by adding some red food dye to white wine (Wang & Spence, 2019). Similarly, people’s assess ment of building materials has also been shown to be dominated by the visual rather than by the feel (Wastiels, Schifferstein, Wouters, & Heylighen, 2013; see also Karana, 2010).

At the same time, however, while we are largely visually dominant, the other senses can also sometimes drive our behaviour. For instance, according to an article that appeared in the Wall Street Journal, many people will apparently refuse to check in to a hotel if there is funny smell in the lobby (Pacelle, 1992). Such admittedly anecdotal observations, were they to be backed up by robust empirical data, would then support the notion that olfactory atmospheric cues can, at least under
certain conditions, also dominate in terms of determining our approach-avoidance behaviour. Mean
while, a growing number of diners have also reported how they will sometimes leave a restaurant if the noise is too loud (see Spence, 2014, for a review; Wagner, 2018), resonating with the quote from Blesser and Salter (2007) that we came across a little earlier.

One other potentially important issue to bear in mind here concerns the “assumption of unity”, or
coupling/binding priors that constitute an important factor modulating the extent of crossmodal binding in the case of multisensory object/event perception, according to the literature on the currently popular Bayesian causal inference (see Chen & Spence, 2017; Rohe, Ehlis,&Noppeney, 2019, for reviews). Coupling priors can be thought of as the internalized long-term statistics of the environment (e.g., Girshick, Landy, & Simoncelli, 2011).

Comment by 陳老頭 on February 13, 2024 at 2:25pm

‘‘ Welearned awholenewwayformanagementandemployeesto work together to make dramatic new things happen. So we have committed to this type of storytelling and feedback to be done every 18 months.’’

The story helps win a local election During the time it was practicing its storytelling initiative, San Juan Regional was developing plans for a major facility expansion and renovation to create a state-of-the-art healing environment and in order to help fulfill its new mission, vision, and philosophy. Indeed, many of the employee suggestions that came out of the Raider’s story were focused on this new facility. Unfortunately, the hospital could raise only about half of the money required to complete the project.

As an alternative, San Juan Regional could go to its community for financial support through bond issues or tax initiatives. But the last three times it had done so– all for much less money than was needed this time– it had been turned down. The Raiders of the Lost Art story sessions were completed about four months before the gross receipts tax election. Subsequently, largely without any help from management, employees began to talk to each other, to their families, and to their friends and neighbors. Their tone was an enthusiastic one; they talked about what the project was and, more importantly, what the expansion project meant to patients, families, healthcare professionals, and local businesses. In other words, they talked about everything they had learned from– and contributed to– the story. When Election Day finally arrived, the mood was a mix of anticipation and anxiety. What would happen if the voters said no again?

How would the hospital ever fulfill its aspirations? And with new hospitals being built in surrounding communities, could San Juan Regional ever compete successfully should a no vote occur? As the votes were counted, it was obvious that there had been a major change in public sentiment. San Juan Regional’s tax initiative had received 84 percent of the vote! More than four out of every f ive voters supported this tax initiative, which had a higher price tag than the initiatives they had voted down in the past. Construction has now begun on a new facility that will let San Juan Regional provide a healthcare experience that lives up to its new mission, vision, and philosophy, and will enable it to recapture the Lost Art of Personalized Healthcare.

Comment by 陳老頭 on February 12, 2024 at 5:07pm

Does it, I wonder, make sense to suggest that we have such priors concerning the unification of environmental/atmospheric cues? Or might it be, perhaps, that in a context in which we are regularly exposed to incongruent environmental/atmospheric multisensory cues- just think of how music is played from loudspeakers without any associated visual referent- that out priors concerning whether to integrate what we see, hear, smell, and feel will necessarily be related, in any meaningful sense, may well be reduced substantially.

See Badde Navarro, and Landy (2020) and Gau and Noppeney  (2016) on the role of context in the strength of the  common-source priors multisensory binding.

Hence, no matter whether one wants to create a tranquil space (Pheasant, Horoshenkov, Watts, & Barret, 2008)or one that arouses (Mattila & Wirtz, 2001), the senses interact as they do in various other configurations and situations (e.g., Jahncke, Eriksson, & Naula, 2015; Jiang,  Masullo, & Maffei, 2016). There are, in fact, numerous examples where the senses have been shown to interact in  the experience and rating of urban environments (e.g., Ba &Kang,2019; Van Renterghem & Botteldooren, 2016).

Crossmodal correspondences in architectural design practice The field of synaesthetic design has grown rapidly in  recent years (e.g., Haverkamp, 2014; Merter, 2017;  Spence, 2012b). According to architectural historian, Alberto Pérez-Gómez, mentioned earlier, the Philips Pavilion designed by Le Corbusier for the 1958 Brussels world’s fair (Fig. 10) attempted to deliver a multisensory experience, or atmosphere by means of “forced” synaesthesia (Pérez-Gómez, 2016,p.19).18

The interior audiovisual environment was mostly designed by Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis (see Sterken, 2007). From those descriptions that have survived there were many  coloured lights and projections and a looping soundscape that was responsive to people’s  ovement through the  space (Lootsma, 1998; Muecke & Zach, 2007). 

18 Though Pérez-Gómez (2016, p. 65) seems to be using a rather unconventional definition of synaesthesia, as a little later in his otherwise excellent work, he defines perceptual synaesthesia as “the integrated sensory modalities”, Pérez-Gómez (2016, p. 65). The  majority of cognitive neuroscientists would, I presume, take this as a  definition of multisensory perception, rather than synaesthesia. Synaesthesia, note, is typically defined as the automatic elicitation  of an idiosyncratic concurrent, not normally experienced, in response  to the presence of an inducing stimulus (Grossenbacher & Lovelace,  2001).

True to his oculocentric approach, mentioned at the start of this piece, Le Corbusier apparently concentrated  on the visual aspects of the “Poème Electronique”, the multimedia show that was projected inside the pavilion.

Meanwhile, his site manager, Iannis Xenakis created “Concret PH”- the soundscape, broadcast over 300 loudspeakers, that accompanied it. It is, though, unclear how much connection there actually was between the auditory and visual components of this multimedia presentation. The notion of parallel, but unconnected, stimulation to eye and ear comes through in Xenakis’ quote that: “we are capable of speaking two languages at the same time.

Comment by 陳老頭 on February 11, 2024 at 3:23pm

One is addressed to the eyes, the other to the ears.” (Varga,  1996,p.114).Moreover, inhis laterwork(e.g.,Polytopes),  Xenakis pursued the idea of creating a total dissociation be tween visual and aural perception in large abstract sound and light installations (Sterken, 2007, p. 33).

 At several points throughout his book Pérez-Gómez (2016), stresses the importance of “synaesthesia” to architecture, without, unfortunately, ever really quite defining what he means by the term. All one finds are quotes such as the following: “primordial synesthetic perception”,  p. 11;  “perception is primordially  synesthetic”, p. 20; “synaesthesia as the primary modality  of human perception”, p. 71. Pérez-Gómez (2016, p.  149) draws heavily on Merleau-Ponty’s (1962, p. 235) Phenomenology of Perception, quoting lines such as:

 “The senses translate each other without any need of an interpreter, they are mutually comprehensible without the intervention of any idea.” A few pages later he cites Heidegger “truths as correspondence” (Pérez-Gómez,  2016, p. 162). This does, though, sound more like a de scription of the ubiquitous crossmodal correspondences  (Marks, 1978; Spence, 2011) than necessarily fitting with  contemporary definitions of synaesthesia, though the distinction between the two phenomena admittedly remains fiercely contested (e.g., Deroy & Spence, 2013; Sathian & Ramachandran, 2020). Abath (2017) has done a great job of highlighting the confusion linked to Merleau-Ponty’s incoherent use of the term synaesthesia, that has, in turn, gone on to “infect” the writings of other architectural theorists, such as Pérez-Gómez (2016).

Talking of synaesthetic design may then be something  of a misnomer (Spence, 2015), the fundamental idea here is to base one’s design decisions on the sometimes surprising connections between the senses that we all share, such as, for example, between high-pitched sounds and small, light, fast-moving objects (e.g.,  Spence, 2011, 2012a). It is important to highlight the fact  that while these crossmodal correspondences are often confused with synaesthesia, they actually constitute a superficially similar, but fundamentally quite different empirical phenomenon (see Deroy & Spence, 2013).

We have already come across a number of examples of crossmodal correspondences being incorporated,  knowingly or otherwise, in design decisions. Just think about the use of temperature-hue correspondences  (Tsushima et al., 2020; see Spence, 2020a, for a review).

The lightness-elevation mapping (crossmodal correspondence) might also prove useful from a design perspective (Sunaga, Park, & Spence, 2016). And colour taste and sound-taste correspondences have already been incorporated into the design of multisensory experiential spaces (e.g., Spence et al., 2014; see also Adams &  Doucé, 2017; Adams & Vanrie, 2018). Once one accepts  the importance of crossmodal correspondences to environmental design, then this represents an additional level  at which sensory atmospheric cues may be judged as  congruent (e.g., see Spence et al., 2014). One of the important questions that remains for future research,  though, is to determine whether there may be a priority of one kind of cross modal congruency over others when they are manipulated simultaneously.

Comment by 陳老頭 on February 8, 2024 at 5:53pm


While it would seem unrealistic that the dominance, or hegemony (Levin, 1993), of the visual will be overturned any time soon, that does not mean that we should not do our best to challenge it. As critic David Michael Levin puts it: “I think it is appropriate to challenge the hegemony of vision– the ocular-centrism of our culture.

And I think we need to examine very critically the character of vision that predominates today in our world. We urgently need a diagnosis of the psychosocial path ology of everyday seeing– and a critical understanding of ourselves as visionary beings.” (Levin, 1993, p. 205).

While not specifically talking about architecture, what we can all do is to adopt a more multisensory perspective and be more sensitive to the way in which the senses interact, be it in architecture or in any other as pect of our everyday experiences.

By designing experiences that congruently engage more of the senses we may be better able to enhance the quality of life while at the same time also creating more immersive, engaging, and memorable multisensory experiences (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Gallace & Spence, 2014; Garg, 2019; Spence, 2021; Ward, 2014). Stein and Meredith (1993, p. xi), two of the foremost multisensory
neuroscientists of the last quarter century, summarized this idea when they suggesting in the preface to their in fluential volume The merging of the senses that: “The in tegration of inputs from different sensory modalities not only transforms some of their individual characteristics, but does so in ways that can enhance the quality of life.

Integrated sensory inputs produce far richer experiences than would be predicted from their simple coexistence or the linear sum of their individual products.” There is growing interest across many fields of endeavour in design that moves beyond this one dominant, or perhaps even overpowering, sense (Lupton & Lipps, 2018). The aim is increasingly to design for experience rather than merely for appearance. At the same time, however, it is also important to note that progress has been slow in translating the insights from the academic field of multisensory research to the world of architec
tural design practice, as noted by licensed architect Joy Monice Malnar when writing about her disappointment with the entries at the 2015 Chicago Architecture Biennial.

Comment by 陳老頭 on February 8, 2024 at 5:52pm

There, she writes: “So, where are we? What is the current state of the art? Sadly, the current research on multisensory environments appearing in journals such as The Senses & Society does not appear to be impacting artists and architects participating in the Chicago Biennial. Nor are the discoveries in neuroscience offering new information about how the brain relates to the physical environment.” (Malnar, 2017, p. 153).19 At the same time, however, the adverts for at least one new residential development in Barcelona promising residents the benefits of “Sensory living” (The New York Times International Edition in 2019, August 31–Septem ber 1, p. 13), suggests that at least some architects/de signers are starting to realize the benefits of engaging their clients’/customers’ senses. The advert promised that the newly purchased apartment would “provoke their senses”.

Ultimately, it is to be hoped that as the growing awareness of the multisensory nature of human perception continues to spread beyond the academic community, those working in the field of architectural design practice will increasingly start to incorporate the multisensory perspective into their work; and, by so doing, promote the development of buildings and urban spaces that do a better job of promoting our social, cognitive, and emotional well-being.

(Source: Senses of place: architectural design for the multisensory mind by Charles Spence; in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications (2020) 5:46 Keywords: Multisensory perception, Architecture, The senses, Crossmodal correspondences)




The Light of City: Freedom by Thai Hoa Pham



Comment by 陳老頭 on February 7, 2024 at 3:24pm

Senses of place: architectural design for the multisensory mind

Abstract: Traditionally, architectural practice has been dominated by the eye/sight. In recent decades, though, architects and designers have increasingly started to consider the other senses, namely sound, touch (including proprioception, kinesthesis, and the vestibular sense), smell, and on rare occasions, even taste in their work. As yet, there has been little recognition of the growing understanding of the multisensory nature of the human mind that has emerged from the field of cognitive neuroscience research. This review therefore provides a summary of the role of the human senses in architectural design practice, both when considered individually and, more importantly, when studied collectively. For it is
only by recognizing the fundamentally multisensory nature of perception that one can really hope to explain a number of surprising crossmodal environmental or atmospheric interactions, such as between lighting colour and thermal comfort and between sound and the perceived safety of public space. At the same time, however, the contemporary focus on synaesthetic design needs to be reframed in terms of the crossmodal correspondences and multisensory integration, at least if the most is to be made of multisensory interactions and synergies that have been uncovered in recent years. Looking to the future, the hope is that architectural design practice will increasingly incorporate our growing understanding of the human senses, and how they influence one another. Such a multisensory approach will hopefully lead to the development of buildings and urban spaces that do a better job of promoting our social, cognitive, and emotional development, rather than hindering it, as has too often been the case previously. (Source: Senses of place: architectural design for the multisensory mind by Charles Spence; in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications (2020) 5:46 Keywords: Multisensory perception, Architecture, The senses, Crossmodal correspondences)

Comment by 陳老頭 on May 22, 2022 at 11:59pm

TYPOLOGY OF TOURISTS AND THEIR SATISFACTION LEVEL by Dr Renata Grzywacz,Dr Patrycja Żegleń,Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego & Uniwersytet Rzeszowski

The paper concerns various types of tourists according to different typologies and their influence on choosing destinations. The main aim of the article is to show the process of making decisions by different tourists as well as to present the most important factors influeincing the length and kind of holidays. The authors also showed tourists’ preferences and satisfaction levels of various types of travellers.


There are many types of tourists who have different demands of a destination. Tourist typologies are descriptors of distinctive forms of tourist consumer behaviour. They reflect different motivations, interests and styles of travel on the part of tourists. Most of the typologies attempt to group tourists according to their preferences in terms of destinations, activities while on holiday, independent travel versus package holidays. The purpose of these typologies is to divide the tourists into the different groups in order to find out what the specific tourist want.

The increase of number and specifity of typologies started by the end of the Second World War, as a result of the scientification of tourism progressed. First of all, Plog [1964] classified tourists according to destinations they prefer. He argued that there was a continuum between types of tourists from the allocentric to the psychocentric tourist. The allocentric tourists seek new destinations, and are prepared to take risks in searching for new cultures and places. On the other hand psychocentric tourists seek the familiar, and are happier in an environment where there are many likeminded tourists. They are not risk takers and adhere to the proven product, being conservative in choice. During the 1970s typologies based on age and economy dominated led by Cohen [1972] whose initial typology established two non-intitutionalized roles as drifter and Explorer, and two intitutionalized types, organized mass tourists and individual mass tourists.

  1. Organized mass tourist: these are the least adventurous tourists. On buying their package holiday they remain encapsulated in an ‘environmental bubble’, divorced from the host community as they remain primarily in the hotel complex. They adhere to an itinenary fixed by the tour operators, and even their trips out of the complex are organised tours. They make few decisions about their holiday.
  2. Individual mass tourist: they are similar to organised mass tourists in that they utilise the facilities made available by touroperator, but they have some control over their own itinarary. They may use the hotel as a base and hire a car for thier own trips. However, many will tend to visit the same places as the mass organised tourist in that they will visit the ‘sights’.(TYPOLOGY OF TOURISTS AND THEIR SATISFACTION LEVEL,by Dr Renata Grzywacz,Dr Patrycja Żegleń,Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego & Uniwersytet Rzeszowski Source: https://www.researchgate.net)
Comment by 陳老頭 on May 22, 2022 at 11:56pm
  1. Explorer: the explorer arranges his or her trip alone, and attempts to get off the beaten track. Yet such tourists will still have recourse to comfortable tourist accomodation. However, much of their travel will be associated with a motivation to associate with the local people, and they will often speak the language of the host community. Nonetheless, the explorer retains many of the basic routines of his or own lifestyle.
  2. Drifter: the drifter will shun contact with the tourist and tourist establishments, and identifiy with the host community. Drifters will live with the locals and adopt many of the practices of that community. Income is generated by working with the community, but often through low-skilled work, which creates a tendency to mix with the lower socioeconomic groups.

Cohen [1979] also summarised five modes of touristic experience: recreational, diversionary, experiental, experimental and existential.

Furthermore, Valene Smith [1977] described the demographic aspects of tourism, in several levels as:

  • explorer: very limited numbers looking for discovery and involvement with local people,
  • elite: special individually tailored visits to exotic places,
  • off-beat: the desire to get away from the crowds,
  • unusual: the visit with peculiar objectives such as physical danger or isolation,
  • incipient mass: a steady flow travelling alone or in small organized groups using some shared services,
  • mass: the general packaged tour market leading to tourist enclaves overseas,
  • charter: mass travel to relaxion destinations which incorparate as many standardized western faclilities as possible.

Further, the author mentioned defined five destination interests and motivations: ethnic, cultural, historical, environmental and recreational.

During 1980s typologied extended and included historic types such as the Grand Tour, north-south tourism, and long-term youth and budget travel, some of which is selftesting [Riley 1988: 111]. Graburn [1983] differentiated two types of contemprory tourism, as the annual vacation or holiday break and the rites of passage tourism associated with major changes in status such as adulthood or career changes.

In decade of 1990, the importance of the links between lifestyle and consumption patterns was increasingly recognized through the construction of broader sets of typologies. Because of this, Gratton [1990], Cooper et al. [1998], Shaw and Williams [2002] and Schott [2002] have all rewieved or applied value and lifestyle typologies to understanding of tourism trends. Environmental concerns generated numerous new tourist types related to ‘appropriate’ or alternative tourism, such as ecotourists or green tourists [Smith and Eadington 1992]. Postmodernism has dominated the 1990s with renewed interests in levels of reality [Urry, 1990], concerns with levels of carrying capacity and sustainability, and types of tourist lifestyle and behaviour experiences [Mazanec et al. 1998].

Despite their limitations, tourist typology models are useful because of the fact that they highlight the broad diversity of tourists, in addition they provide an insight into the motivations of tourists and their behaviour and it is a way to segment tourists into different groups.

As a result of higher levels of disposable income, greater leisure time, improved opportunities for mobility, better education, having more sophisticated tastes and flow of information easily people’ attitudes about their holidays start to change.

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, iconada.tv supports creators since July, 2009.


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