玄玖爺·語言學和詩學:雅各布森六要素理論(3)

詩性的,情緒的,意動的,交際的,元語言的和指稱的,這就是語言的六種功能。雅各布森同樣使用一張圖表來表現這六個功能。

Poetic, Emotive, Conative, Phatic, Meta-linguistic and Referential - these are the six functions of language. Jakobson also uses a diagram to represent these six functions.

語言的六功能

對於語言詩性功能的研究,就是詩學。因為詩性是語言六功能中的一個,所以研究詩性的詩學,也不可能脫離語言學研究而存在。反過來想要研究語言,又不可能脫離語言的詩性功能。因此語言學和詩學的關係是非常緊密的,詩學是語言學不可分割的一部分。

The study of the Poetic function of language is poetics. Because the Poetic function is one of the six functions of language, poetics, which studies Poetic, cannot exist apart from the study of linguistics. In turn, it is impossible to study language in isolation from its poetic function. Nor is it possible to study poetry and poetics in isolation from linguistics. Thus, linguistics and poetics are very closely related, and poetics is an inseparable part of linguistics.

那麽,回到雅各布森在一開始提出的目標,這種詩性功能如何幫助我們區分詩和非詩,從而為一種至高的詩學確立基礎?

Returning, then, to Jacobson's goal at the outset, how does this poetic function help us to distinguish between poetry and non-poetry and thus establish the basis for a supreme poetics?

雅各布森之後又補充道,「詩性功能不是語言藝術唯一的功能,而是它的主導性的決定性的功能;而在其他的語言活動中,它是附屬的次要的功能。」[3] 對詩性功能進行研究的語言學研究必須邁出詩的範圍,對詩歌的研究也不能僅限於它的詩的功能。在很多不是詩的文本中,我們也能看到詩性功能的應用,比如一段廣告也可能通過詩性來吸引人消費;詩歌也不僅有是應用了詩的功能,也應用了語言的其他功能,抒情詩顯然就使用了情緒的功能。雖然詩性不局限於詩,但詩一定是把詩性作為核心功能的信息。

Thus, Jakobson later adds that 「Poetic function is not the sole function of verbal art but only its dominant, determining function, whereas in all other verbal activities it acts as a subsidiary, accessory constituent"[3] Linguistic studies that examine the poetic function must step beyond the poem, and the study of poetry cannot be limited to its poetic function. In many texts that are not poems, we can also see the application of the poetic function, for example, an advertisement may also be poetic in order to attract consumption; poetry also applies not only the poetic function but also other functions of language, and lyric poetry obviously uses the emotive function. Although poetics function is not limited to poetry, poetry must be the message that has poetic function as its central function.

總之,對詩的分析屬於詩學研究的範圍內,詩學研究又是語言學的一部分。雅各布森提出了一個六要素的語言學框架,之後將詩歸結為其中一個要素所對應的功能,因此將詩學研究和語言學研究聯系在了一起,用語言學為一門獨立的詩學奠定了基礎。這就是他的六要素理論。

In short, the analysis of poetry falls within the scope of poetic studies, which in turn are part of linguistics. Jakobson proposes a linguistic six-elements framework and later attributes the poem to the function corresponding to one of them, thus linking the study of poetics and the study of linguistics, using linguistics to lay the foundations for an independent poetics. This is his six-element theory.

________________________________________

2 對六要素理論的批判A critique of the six-elements theory

雅各布森在《結束語語言學和詩學》這篇文章的開頭,就指出詩學的首要問題是詩性,也即使得詩不同於非詩的性質,而這使得詩學成為諸種文學研究之首。也就是說,詩學要能幫助我們區分詩和非詩。那他在後面提出的六要素理論,能完成他開頭提出的詩學的任務嗎?貌似是沒有的。

Jakobson begins his essay Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics (1960) by stating that the primary issue of poetics is poetic function, that is, the essence of what makes poetry different from non-poetry, and that this makes poetics the first of all kinds of literary studies. In other words, poetics must be able to help us distinguish between poetry and non-poetry. Does the six-elements theory he proposes later on, then, fulfill the task of poetics that he proposes at the beginning? It does not appear to.

雅各布森自己也表示,詩性既存在於詩中,也存在於非詩中。他舉的三個例子,「瓊和瑪喬麗」,「可怕的哈利」,「我喜歡艾克」,都表示在日常對話和競選標語等非詩的語言運用中,也充滿了他所謂的詩性。而詩中也不僅僅有詩性,也有語言其他功能的使用。史詩使用指稱功能,抒情詩使用情緒功能,第二人稱的詩使用意動性功能。「對於詩性的研究不能局限於詩,對詩的研究不能僅限於詩性」[4],這是雅各布森的結論。

Jakobson himself states that poetic function exists both in poetry and in non-poetry. The three examples he gives, 「Joan and Margery」, 「horrible Harry」, and 'I like Ike', all suggest that the use of non-poetic languages, such as everyday conversation and campaign slogans, is also full of what he calls the poetic function. The poetic function is not just in the poems. And poems use not only poetic function, but also uses other functions of language. Epic poetry uses the Referential function, lyric poetry uses the Emotive function, and second-person poetry uses the Conative function. It is Jakobson's conclusion: 「As we said, the linguistic study of the poetic function must overstep of the limits of the poetry, and, on the other hand, the linguistic scrutiny of the poetry cannot limit itself to the poetic function.」[4]

(原題:〈語言學和詩學:對雅各布森六要素理論的批判和新解〉更多精彩内容請點擊 》知乎

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