公元399年,晋朝,法顯法師以六十五歲高齡發跡長安,涉流沙、逾蔥嶺,徒步數萬里,遍遊北印,廣參聖跡,學習梵文,抄錄經典,歷時多年,復泛海至獅子國今斯里蘭卡,經耶婆提今印度尼西亞而後返國。時年已八十歲,仍從事佛經翻譯。

公元515年 中國南北朝時代,梁武帝蕭衍極力提倡佛法,其聲望因而遠播於東南亞許多崇奉佛教的國家,狼牙脩亦是其中之一,依照《梁書》卷五十四的《狼牙脩國傳》中記載,在公元515年(天監14年),當時狼牙脩國的國王"婆加達多",派使者阿撤多出使南京,拜見梁武帝。並交給梁武帝國書。狼牙脩的使者阿撤多交給梁武帝國書全文記載在《粱書》。

627年正月,貞觀元年,玄奘一人西行五萬里,歷經艱辛到達印度佛教中心那爛陀寺取真經,前後十七年,遍學了當時大小乘各種學說,一共帶回佛舍利150粒、佛像7尊、經論657部,並長期從事翻譯佛經的工作。玄奘及其弟子翻譯出典75部(1335卷),譯典著作有《大般若經》《心經》《解深密經》《瑜伽師地論》《成唯識論》等。《大唐西域記》十二卷,記述他西遊親身經歷的110個國家及傳聞的28個國家的山川、地邑、物產、習俗等。《西遊記》即以玄奘取經事跡為原型。

公元671,唐朝咸亨二年,唐朝名僧義淨大師曾經由海路到印度取經。由廣州,取道海路,經室利弗逝(蘇門答臘巴鄰旁,Palembang)至印度,一一巡禮鷲峰、雞足山、鹿野苑、祇園精舍等佛教聖跡後,往那爛陀寺勤學十年,後又至蘇門答臘遊學七年。歷遊三十余國,返國時,攜梵本經論約四百部、舍利三百粒至洛陽,武后親至上東門外迎接,敕住佛授記寺。公元695年回國,期間極可能曾在同樣信奉佛教的狼牙脩(Langkasuka 吉打/泰南)停留。

1854
11月至1856年元月,華萊士在砂拉越大森林裡走過的探險之旅。


1855 在山都望政府渡假村做客的華萊士,花了三個晚上寫了一篇論文,提出聞名後世的“砂拉越定律”(Sarawak Law)。


2013 紀念華萊士逝世一百週年的特別年份。



照片说明:砂拉越華族與加央族百年前的的樟腦貿易

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Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 23, 2024 at 2:57pm

The Hsing-ch'a Sheng-lan, written in 1486 by Fei Hsin, a Chinese Moslem and an Arabic scholar, gives the following interesting account of Pahang and its people :

" This country is situated at the west of Siam ; it is surrounded by rocky ridges of mountains, which, seen from a distance, have the appearance of a table-land. The ground is fertile, and they have abundance of rice. The weather is often very warm.

"Their customs cannot be much praised; they make human images of fragrant wood, and kill people in order to make a sacrifice of the blood, when they pray for luck or try to ward off evil.

" Men and women have their hair in a knot, and are clad with a single piece of cloth. Girls of rich families wear four or five golden circles on their foreheads, and the daughters of the common people use strings of coloured glass beads instead.

" They boil salt out of sea-water, and make wine by fermenting rice-gruel. " Products of the country are lignum-aloes, camphor, tin and a kind of wood used in dyeing. Articles of import are gold, silver, coloured silks, Java-cloth, copper and iron- ware, gongs, boards, etc."

[pg. 18] According to d' Eredia, Pahang was the second Malay kingdom in the Peninsula, in succession to Patani, and flourished before the founding of Malacca ; the ruler of Pahang in the latter part of the fourteenth century, a relative (by marriage) of Parameswara, first ruler of Malacca, was Lord of Ujong Tanah (the southerly part of the peninsula including Singapore).

d'Eredia 2 records that .: " Pan was the second seat of the Empire of the Malaios ; its site lies on the eastern coast of the Peninsula in three degrees of North latitude; the port is just as much frequented by merchants, because of the gold from its auriferous mines : it contains the best and largest gold-mines in the whole Peninsula : it was from here, one presumes, that there came the gold which formed the subject of the ancient trade with Alexandria .... "

The same chronicler writes : (8) " It is to be noted that the eastern coast of Ujontana was peopled and frequented before the other 01:  western coast : thus the histories relate that Malayos, was inhabited Pattane and Pam before the foundation of Malacca. "

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 22, 2024 at 4:43pm

At that time the ruler of Pam governed Syncapura : and the monarch who resided in Pathane, the metropolis of the Malayos, was tributary to the empire of Syam, for right clown to the present day the Malayos regard the latter as their master: while the head of the principal empire and administration was the Emperor of Attay .... "

He adds : ·' Permicuri,2 by birth a Jao of Palimban in Samatta or the Golden Chersonese allied himself in marriage with the lords and monarchs of Patane and Pam who belonged to the family of the Malaios .... " 3

[Pg 18]

This first Malaccan potentate chose Malacca as his headquarters about the end of the 14th century. cl'Eredia relates that:

" Permicuri selected this spot in the interests of his own safety, for he stood in fear of the ruler of Pam, over-lord of the countries of Ujontana, who was making warlike preparations to capture him, in consequence of the treachery which Permicuri had perpetrated in Sincapura, when he assassinated the ' Xabandar ' who was telated to the lord of Pam, despite the kindness which the ' Xabandar' had shown at his house in Syncapura, when Permicuri took refuge there in his flight from his father-in-law the Emperor of Java Major .... " 4

In the same chapter d'Ereclia calls Permicuri the " flrst king of the Malayos." According to d'Albuquerque's "Commen- taries," it was the ruler of Palani of whom Permicuri stood in fear, and the murdered chief's name was Tamagi.

d'Eredia (12) states that the religion of Islam was in introduced into Patani and Pahang before it was accepted by "Permicuri at Malacca in the year 1411." That statement is certainly true of Trengganu (which at that time appears to have formed a province of Patani), and is probably true of Pahang, though we have no other evidence to show that Islam was practised in the country before 1454.

Mahayana Buddhism, on which were superimposed Tantric orgies involving human sacrifice, had reached the Malay Peninsula about the 8th century. Its influence in Pahang, I though it waned with the introduction of Islam as the State religion about 1454, may be traced up to the beginning of the  17th century.

In the 12th century the kingdom of San Fo-ts'i began to decline, and by the 14th century, in the south, the east-Java state of Majapahit had become predominant, while, in the north, by 1292, the Siamese (Thai) kingdom, with its capital at Sukhodaya, had emerged.

8. d'Eredia's "Description of Malacca," translation by J.V. Mills, loc. cit., p. 3
9. An incorrect rendering of Parameswara.
10. aop. cit., p. 57.
11. op. cit., p. 16.
12. op. cit., p. 49.
13. JRAS (Journal Malayan Branch [Vol. XIV, Part II, History of Pahang. 9 ~

A vassal of San Fo-ts'i, according to Chau Ju-Kua, was Tan-ma-ling. Gerini (13) identified this country with Kuantan, a district of Pahang, on the ground that the north promontory of the Kuantan river was called Tanjong Tembiting, '' Cape Ternbeling.''

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 21, 2024 at 8:34am

Candrabhanu a king of Ligor who, according to the Jaiya inscription (which has now been discovered to have come from Ligor and not from Jaiya or Chaiya). styled himself Seri Dharma- raja and Lord of Tambralinga, the Ceylonese "Mahavamsa" tells us, led two hostile expeditions against Ceylon about the middle of the 13th century with Javaka (Malay) forces. (14)

By 1292, Ligor had become the extreme southern limit of the Thai kingdom of Sukhodaya (Sukhothai). Now Logor has been widely accepted as being the Tan-ma-ling of Chan Ju-Kua 15 and the Tambralinga of the Jaiya inscription. There are two localities in Pahang which are suggestive of the name given by the Chinese chronicler: the river Tembeling which, the discovery of numerous Neolithic and early iron-age implements there indicates, was at one time a thickly populated district, and Tanjung Tembeling the northern headland of Kuantan river. Was there a connection between these places and Logor?

The history of the Ming Dynasty states that the Pahang ruler who sent envoys to China in 1378 was called Maharaja, the same style as that  affected by the King of Logor. When the Malacca forces conquered Pahang about 1454, according to the Malay Annals, (16) they found there a “Siamese” prince with the title Maharaja Dewa Sura, king oi Logor (who bore the same title as that of the prince who ruled in Pahang about 1454), on the instruction of the king of Siam invaded Pahang.,following the route Tembeling.

It is not unlikely that this invasion state was in reassertion of a pre-Thai Suzerainty , that is to Ligor, the Tan-ma-ling of the Chinese and the Tambralinga of the Jaiya inscription, that we must look at least during one period, for the origin of the pre-Malaccan rulers of Pahang., and that it was the men of Ligor who give the name of their country Tan-Ma-ling to the river Tembeling, (18),a highway of communication between Pahang and the north, and to Tanjung Tembeling at Kuantan, the only safe anchorage for their fleet on the coast during the season of the north-east monsoon (19), and the port of access to the rich tin mines of Sungai Lembing. To Ligor, a state powerful enough to invade Ceylon twice during 13th cebtury , the conquest of Pahang must present no great difficulty.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 20, 2024 at 10:24am

With the subjugation of ligor by Sukhothai about 1280 the suzerainty over Pahang fell to the Thai in the 14th Century. In the same century Pahang suffered an invasion from Majapahit which thereafter claimed that State as one of its conquests. This raid may have had no lasting effect (20), thought it appeared that it resulted in inter-marriage between members of the ruling family of Majapahit and the princes of Pahang. The Thai over-lords of Ligor apparently did not interfere with the Ligor dynasty in Pahang but they, too, may have contracted marriage alliances with the Pahang royal family. The new empire had arisen in the nor contented itself with exciting tribute from Pahang and establishing settlements in the country.

The Pre-Malaccan people of Pahang lived by mining gold, tin, and iron and planning rice. They left many traces; irrigation works, mine workings, remains of brick building, specimens of Sawankalok pottery, and probably the pottery industry at Kuala Tembeling which has survived through years to the present days. The pre-Malaccan occupied the Tembeling, Thet can be traced as far as south as the Merchong. They extended into the Pahang and the Jelai;their tracks can be found along lake Chini up to the Headwaters of the Rombin; in the old Selinsing mines scoops of Palas wood used by them have been discovered. They left numerous relics in gold-working at Tresang and Sempore. They make their way to bebar, They established settlements at Jeram Kuai (Koi) and Jong Berlabon on the Tembeling, at Lubok Pelang, Lubok Paku, at Chini, at Langgar, at Pengkalan Durian in Ulu Bebar, at pura, and else where. Their occupation is commemorated by the nomenclature of places such as Chini, Parit Siam, Tambak Siam, Lubang Siam (or Lumbong Siam),, Parit Siam, Sungai Lego (Ligor) a tributary of the Tekam in the vicinity of Kota gelanggi. (21)

(Chapter 2, The Pre-Malaccan People, in A History of Pahang, W. Linehan, Silverfish Malaysia Classic Series 18, 2020, Pakka English Enterprise, pg. 15-22, Previously published as Volume XIV Part II, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in May 1936 )

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 8, 2024 at 10:20am


Preserving the Cultural Bond towards Strengthening Sino-Malaysian Friendship

Melestarikan Hubungan Kebudayaan, ke Arah Memperkukuh Persahabatan Malaysia-China

Author: Ku Boon Dar

ABSTRACT

This paper is an attempt to trace the history of traditional friendship between China and Malaysia which had been established since the Han Dynasty. The ties between both countries were further strengthened in the 15th century with the establishment of diplomatic relation between the Ming Dynasty and the Malacca Sultanate. The paper also discusses the diplomatic ties between China and Malaysia which was officially reconciled in 1974 during the second Malaysia Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein’s visit to China. This bilateral relationship has continued to develop
and gained significance with China’s ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative in 2013, which was inspired by China’s president, Xi Jinping. The paper describes the relationship between the two great empires (China and the Malay world), which carries a special significance in the context of the interaction of civilizations. This interaction does not only revolve around the issues of trade, investment and tourism alone but its significance is also visible in various socio-cultural issues especially the development of the Malay language in China.

Keywords: Sino–Malaysian relations; Malay language; Overseas Chinese (Huaqiao); Peranakan Chinese (BabaNyonya); Malayan Communist Party (MCP)

ABSTRAK

Makalah ini menelusuri sejarah panjang persahabatan tradisional antara China dengan Malaysia yang sudah dijalinkan sejak Dinasti Han. Jalinan kedua-dua negara ini terus dimekarkan pada abad ke-15 dengan hubungan Dinasti Ming dengan Kesultanan Melayu Melaka. Seterusnya makalah ini juga membincangkan hubungan diplomatik antara ChinaMalaysia yang dijalinkan semula secara rasmi pada tahun 1974 semasa kunjungan Perdana Menteri Malaysia, Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein ke China. Hubungan dua hala ini telah pesat berkembang sehingga kepada inisiatif ‘One Belt One
Road’ China yang diilhamkan oleh Presiden China, Xi Jinping pada 2013. Makalah ini menjelaskan bahawa hubungan antara dua buah kerajaan besar, yang satu di Asia Timur dan yang satu di alam Melayu itu, mempunyai signifikan yang khusus dalam konteks interaksi tamadun yang bukan hanya berlingkar pada hubungan perdagangan, pelaburan dan pelancongan semata-mata, malah menjangkau kepelbagaian isu-isu sosiobudaya khususnya perkembangan bahasa Melayu di China.

Kata kunci: Hubungan China-Malaysia; bahasa Melayu; Orang Cina Seberang (Huaqiao); Peranakan Cina (BabaNyonya); Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM)

Ku Boon Dar, 2016, Preserving the Cultural Bond towards Strengthening Sino-Malaysian Friendship ,International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation [Iman] 4[3], 2016: 87 – 96 [http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/IMAN-2016-0403-09])

See Also: 海絲路·文化·軟實力

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 8, 2024 at 10:16am

INTRODUCTION

The relationship between China and the Malay world was often strengthen during the Ming Dynasty
with the Malacca Sultanate. In fact, the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Borneo have built ties
with China since the first century even when the country and nation’s entity was still non-existence.
According to archaeological findings found in the Niah Cave (Sarawak), the mural paintings, coffins
made of copper had similarities with the copper coffins found in Guangxi, Guizhou and Sichuan. It
was proven that these coffins were archaeological remains of the Three Kingdom (AD 220-280) war
era in China. In addition, archaeological remains such as the bronze drum unearthed after a flood in
the Temerloh River (Pahang), coins, knives, iron and fishing hooks carved with Chinese characters
was found on the coast of Sarawak also proved that there were initial relation in trades between
the Malays and Chinese (Zhou & Tang 2011: 41).

Majority of the earthenware found in the area was linked to the remains of Han Dynasty (206
BC -220 AD). In addition, the trade relationship between the Malay Peninsular and China can be
seen from the remains of artifacts such as found in the Bujang Valley (Chieh-cha), Kalumpang Island
(Sabah), Matang in Perak, Johor Lama (Lo-Yueh), Singapore, Tioman Island (Tiyumah), Kuala Berang in Terengganu (Fo-lo-an), Pattani, Chaiya and Ligor in Thailand (Zuliskandar & Nik Hassan 2010: 47).

The ports in these states formed trade relationship with China from the artifacts found since the Song Dynasty while the trades in Kedah have begun since the Tang Dynasty (618 – 906 BC). Historian,
K. G. Tregonning (1965: 2) stated that the Malay Peninsular was the port (relay station) for ChinaIndia trades. Indeed, the history of interaction between Malay and Chinese civilization has run long. The Sino-Malaysia cultural exchange was developed out of the trade between China and India, due to the Malay Peninsula’s strategic location on the route of Chinese and Indian sails, the Malay
Peninsula had delevoped transit trade through which its cultural exchange with China had dawned (Zhou & Tang 2011: 12).

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 7, 2024 at 1:04pm

Chinese historical source described the relationship of the Chinese kingdom with the Malay
world in detail from the beginning. It was pioneered clearly during Han Dynasty which was recorded by Han Shi Di Li Zhi, followed by series of relationship with later dynasties. Han Shu Di Li Zhi described the voyage of Emperor Wu Di (140 BC- 87 BC) to Huang Zhi (Kanchipuram) in southeast India with the country in Southeast Asia and South Asia.

In addition, Hou Han Shu also described that in the year 131 AD, the kingdom of Diao Ye believed to
be either in Java or Sumatera has sent tribute to the Chinese emperor and whereby the emperor later awarded a prize to the king in return (Liang Liji 1996: 13).

However, the relationship between China and Malay world was briefly interrupted when stability
in the Han Dynasty was compromised. Hence the relationship with the Malay world is often severed
without continuity. Similarly, at that time, there is no state in the Malay world which has a great and
impactful government that the relationship is not so familiar. However, China’s relations with the
Malay world jumped to a higher level after the rise of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) and in the Malay Srivijaya Empire in the 7th century. The relationship between the two kingdoms of which one was in Southeast Asia while the other from the Malay world, carried a great significant specifically in the context of modern interaction. It was not confined to trades only but transcends to the cultural ties, thoughts and belief system. During Tang dynasty, the Buddhist monks’ activity in Srivijaya became the best means to expand religious teachings outside its territory. At the same time, the old Malay language which was strongly influenced by Sanskrit became the tool to understanding Sanskrit for the Buddhist monks. One of the monk’s well-kept record was documented by Fa-Hsien who have made the sacred journey to India by land across Central Asia.

Paul Wheatley (1961) in his research about the adventures of Fa-Hsien was more likely to follow the opinion of Grimes (1941) which stated that Fa-Hsien has been through passage in the Straits of Malacca before arriving in Borneo or Java as compared to the opinion expressed earlier by Wilson (1838-1839), Sykes (1840-1841) and James Legge (1886) which states that the adventures of Fa-Hsien been through before reaching the Sunda Strait to Borneo (Takakusu 1896). Meanwhile the monk, Yi Jing (I-Ching) who lived for six months in the capital of Srivijaya in 671 AD and later went to Chieh-cha (Kedah) with the mission to enhance his religious study, while helping to expand the spread of Buddhism in the country has clearly shown the close tie between the two countries and civilization.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 7, 2024 at 1:03pm

At the beginning of 673 AD, when the northeast monsoon wind blows, I-Ching begins to cruise through the Bay of Bengal to India. In his voyage, he had stated that after ten days of sailing from Kedah, he arrived in the Kingdom of the Naked People (Nicobar Islands) (Takakusu 1896: 197) and a half months later arrived at Tan-mo-li-ti (Tamralipti). In addition to the question of religion, aspects of customs, etiquette and different culture in Malay has attracted the attention of Yi Jing that the Srivijaya Empire was highly regarded by Tang Dynasty as the centre of civilization in the Malay world. The Chinese kingdom also hopes that the peacefulness will allow diplomatic missions and trades between Southeast Asia who commutes to China will gain benefit in the concept of “de” (德) in the form of harmonious, natural relationship.

“De” is key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated as “inherent character; inner power;
integrity” in Taoism, “moral character; morality” in Confucianism and other contexts and “quality,
virtue” or “merit, virtuous deeds” in Chinese Buddhism.

China not only established relationship with Srivijaya but also with other provinces in the
archipelago such as Siam (Thailand), Burma (Myanmar), Annam (Vietnam), Malacca and Java.
China’s efforts to create a good regional relations was also continued by sending Chinese naval fleet
expedition to Nanyang (southern sea) and other regions. While the Tang Dynasty was ruling China,his ruler had opened seven trade routes with the outside world which was commonly known as the Silk Road.

The Silk Road not only was the trade route for silk but also for various other commodities such as slaves, satin, and many other fine fabrics, musks, other perfumes, spices and medicines, jewels, glassware and rhubarb. One of them is the sea route from Guangzhou to India, Persia and Arab through the Malay world such as the Malay Peninsula, Srivijaya, Java (Ho-ling) and others. This
route is a catalytic activity of cultural exchange and technology as well as the main channel for the dissemination of knowledge, ideology, philosophy and culture which connects traders, merchants, priests, missionaries, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers in China, India, Persia, Asia and Mediterranean for nearly 3,000 years. Trade along the Silk Road is the most important factor driving the development of the great civilizations in China with the outside world. At times, it set up the basis for the development of the modern world (Manchester & Cuno 2007: 8).

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MALAY AND CHINESE RELATION

The close tie between China and the Malay world was continued by Song Dynasty (960– 1279 M)
and Yuan Dynasty (1206–1368 M). During the two dynasties, the relationship with Srivijaya and Java
was focused on trade although aspects of culture follows on. The close relationship between MalayChinese, continues while focused was given on trade relations. Merchandise from Southeast Asia, China, India and West Asia are traded together. Trades through the use of sea route has allowed traders from China to identify the various exotic and valuable commodities. Referring to a source from Han Dynasty, a chapter 28 from a book titled Ch’ien Han Su (Annals of the Early Han Dynasty) of Pan Ku tells a story of Chinese traders who boarded the ship of “barbarian” who were not of Chinese descent, to buy pearls, jewels and other rare commodities (Wheatley 1955). It was estimated about 36 times or an average of three times in a year, messengers from Srivijaya was sent to China in Southeast Asia. As a sign of respect and appreciating good relation with the Chinese kingdom, king of Srivijaya financed the building of temple in Guangzhou city in 1079.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 6, 2024 at 4:25am

However, the height of the relationship between the two civilizations, happened during the Ming
Dynasty in the 15th century that Liang Liji (1996: 12) stated, “this history should be recorded in gold
because of its achievement that is unparalleled in the history of both nations.” This is so because both civilization have reached a diplomatic relationship that is organized both in the politics or trade
relationship as well as culture. Malacca under the rule of King Parameswara (Sultan Iskandar Syah)
became the first destination for Emperor Ming Yongle (1403 – 1424) to come to Malay world in
1403. The history of diplomatic ties between China and Malacca written in Ming Shi Lu. This huge
electronic work of Ming Shi Lu can be accessed via Geoff Wade, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: An Open Access Resource. Singapore: Asia Research Institute and Singapore E-Press a href="http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/%3E" target="_blank">http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/>;.

Rapidity and closeness between the two civilizations is reflected in the fact of some important
and interesting facts. These include the sending of Admiral Zheng He or Sampo Kong (which in Malay history known as Admiral Cheng Ho) with a massive fleet for a goodwill visit to Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia, with the greatest ship can load goods weighing 2,500 tons and a total of 1,000 people. The total number of ships were 100 to 200 ships with the officials, crews and army reaching to 27,000 to 28,000 people on board. Zheng He was the epitome of excellence at world sailing expedition during the 15th century. He is a Muslim and a very well-known sailor, diplomat, a wise war hero, and a daring explorer. Zheng He created history by making seven sailing expedition from China to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and East Africa from 1405 to 1433 (Tan Ta Sen 2009: 155).

Another important factor was the visits made by the Malacca king to China. In 1411, Parameswara
(1344 – c. 1414), the ruler of Malacca along with 540 followers was escorted by Cheng Ho to meet
the third emperor of Ming Dynasty, Yung Lo. The delegation from Malacca was granted yellow
umbrella, a seal and a set of clothing as a sign of recognition from the Chinese kingdom towards the
Malay sultanate of Malacca. Later, envoys from Malacca was sent to China in 1412 and 1413 as a
sign to strengthen the friendship. During the reign of Sultan Mansor Shah (1459 – 1477 M), he also
forge a diplomatic tie with the Chinese kingdom. An envoy with gifts were sent to China. The Chinese Emperor bestowed Princess Hang Li Po upon Sultan Mansor Shah as a decision and acknowledgment of Sultan Mansor Shah as the ruler of Malacca Sultanate. Hence, the Sultan sent the Bendahara Tun Perpatih Putih to escort the award, Princess Hang Li Po to Malacca in 1458 along with 500 of her followers. Princess Hang Li Po was later married to Sultan Mansor Shah in 1459. This envoy and award showed that Malacca and China have entered another phase of long-term relationship between Malacca-China. This forged the relationship between the royal families of two kingdoms.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on February 5, 2024 at 8:28pm

This historical marriage was commemorated with the building of Hang Li Po’s well. The well never went dry and was the only source of water during the dry season. The Dutch built a wall surrounding the well in 1677 to preserve it as a wishing well. Some said that by tossing coins, they will return to Malacca in the future (Kong Yuanzhi 2000: 68).


The forging of this tie gave an impact and encouragement when Malacca was no longer disturbed by foreign powers like the Siam and Majapahit. This situation has provided an opportunity for Malacca to grow rapidly into a world-class flourishing trading center. Melaka’s monopoly on the China’s commodity has attracted more and more traders to conduct trade in Melaka. Hence, Malacca became the focus of Muslim and non-Muslim traders developing Malacca not only in terms of economy but also socially. This condition allows Malacca to develop rapidly until it became a successful main An in-depth research on the borrowing of Chinese language in Malay Language was conducted by Kong (1993). According to Kamus Dewan (Dictionary of the Malay language, 1970), Kong (1993) concluded that there are 261 Chinese loan words in Malay language. A research by Mashudi and Yeong (1989) stated that there are 341 Chinese loan word in the Malay language. From the number of words, only 90 words are still used while another 251 words were outdated and no longer use. The trading centre (Tan Ta Sen 2009: 156).


LANGUAGE VERSATILITY, ETHNIC DIVERSITY


The friendship between Malacca and China has brought changes in the structure of society in Malaya when there are traders from the other country who migrated to Malacca and got married with the locals. The result of this mixed marriages have created a new group of society called the Peranakan Chinese or better known as Baba Nyonya. “Peranakan” came from the Malay language root word “anak” (child) which means “descendants of Chinese and of another race” or “generations of Chinese born in Malaya”. The name “Baba” is a reference for men while “Nyonya” is used to refer to the women. The existence of the “Peranakan” race linguistically have helped to increase the Malay language vocabulary which came from Hokkien. The process of communication between the two communities have demonstrated the phenomenon of vocabulary adaptation. In such case, the relationship between the Malay and Chinese society have caused the adaptation of Chinese language in Malay language. Some of the vocabulary adapted from Chinese language can be seen below:

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