LITERATURE & LEARNING : Embracing AI for Creativity

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Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 2, 2024 at 5:08pm

5) Sample chapter (some editors will not require this)

For non-fiction, include the text you would use as your introduction along with one or two sample chapters. If your project is fiction, instead of sample chapters, you should submit the first 40 to 50 pages of your manuscript, or, if applicable, the entire manuscript. In either case, the quality of the writing is important, but much more so in fiction. Also in the case of fiction, be sure to craft your early pages well to grab the reader and make them want more.

6) Book details

Here is a place to describe the details of the project. You might include approximately how many words you imagine the final book will be. If you are in including images, you might include a list of how many images you envision, whether the book will be color or black and white, and whether the images will be free to use or require a budget (for acquiring the rights to use them). If an art book, include some of the strongest images up front in the proposal, and perhaps a few pages of small images at the end of the document; you might also want to pepper a few images throughout the proposal to illustrate the text (see sample proposal).

7) About the author/biography

This should explain who you are, and make an argument for why you are the right person to do this project. Again, demonstrate that you can reach a buying audience with this book idea. This section should list any relevant articles or books you’ve already published, preferably with view counts and/or sales figures; a list of the magazines and other press outlets that have reported on your work; lectures you have given—basically anything that supports your argument that this book should exist and you are the right person to write it.

Remember, the reader of this document probably does not know you, and you want to make sure they can see that you are capable of doing this project and of effectively getting it out into the world. For this reason, you’ll need to be a bit braggy. I personally find it very hard to write such self-aggrandizing text; my solution has been to show a first draft to a friend who knows me and my work well, and ask them for suggestions of how to make it more convincing.

Publishers are also interested to know if you’ll be willing and able to do public speaking or television appearances to promote your book. This will inevitably come up later, so make sure to mention your experience here if applicable.

8) Platform/audience

Increasingly, publishers want to know that their authors will be able to reach an audience who will buy the book. This section should demonstrate your reach. List here your stats for Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, a website or blog if you have one, etc. Also include the number of people on your mailing list, if applicable, and detail any other way you have of engaging with an audience.

9) Market profile

Begin with a narrative: What is the market for this book? Establish that this particular book does not already exist, but similar books do. Now make a list of similar books and note the date of publication. For each book, write a brief synopsis, and what makes it similar or different from yours. The goal here is to demonstrate that your book is filling a gap in a viable market.

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 1, 2024 at 3:29pm


10) Format (if an art book)

Describe how you imagine the book will look. What size is it? What is the design like? You might use an existing book, preferably by that publisher, as a starting point. Do you see the book as full color or black and white? If you have design skills, you might also include a few sample spreads (a spread is two pages of a book side by side) showing how you imagine the general layout will look. If a photo book, be sure to include images as well, and detail if you have permission to use them, what kind of camera you used, and what resolution/quality the images are.

11) Selling venues outside of traditional bookstores

Do you know of specialty shops that would be likely to stock this book? Eg. Museum shops, or other specialty shops of various sorts? If so, list them here.

12) People who might provide a blurb

Do you have any ideas for well-known, influential, or famous people who might provide a blurb? If so, include a list of your ideas.

13) Preliminary schedule

How long after signing the contract would you need to deliver the final manuscript and, if applicable, all of the images?


The proposal is drafted: Now what?

Now that you have finished a first draft of your proposal, your book idea is solidified and clarified. So what’s next?

The next step I have always taken is to think about the right publisher. To come up with some publishers that might be a good fit for your project, you will need to do some brainstorming and research. Ask yourself: Are there similar books to yours out there? If so, who publishes them? Or perhaps you are already a fan of a publisher who you think would be perfect for your book?

Either way, once you determine an idea for an appropriate publisher (or two or three), try to find a way to connect 1:1 with someone who works there. I have always done this through friends-of-friends or colleagues, but many people use LinkedIn or other social media for this purpose. This outreach is worth the effort, as it helps immensely to have a human who you know will actually read your proposal. If this fails, you can always send the proposal by mail or email via the publisher’s website. But again, always strive to make a personal connection at any publisher over cold-emailing your proposal over.

You could also consider working with an agent to help you find a publisher. I work with an agent on some but not all projects. I found her through a good friend who worked as a literary agent. You can also find an agent by pinpointing similar books and skimming the acknowledgements for mention of an agent.

Having an agent has many advantages: they have personal contacts at publishing houses, ensuring your proposal will be seen and read. They can also help you craft a more convincing (and commercially appealing) proposal, negotiate a better deal for you (more money, better terms), and act as a middleman/buffer in interactions with the press. The disadvantage is, of course, they will take part of your earnings. (Con't below)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 31, 2024 at 3:59pm

You might also consider self-publishing. The quality of self-published books has gotten very good, and online platforms like Amazon (love it or hate it) make it easy to get your book out into the world.

Another option is crowdfunding platforms. We used Kickstarter to fund our self-published Morbid Anatomy Anthology to great success, but this works best if you or your collaborators have solid design, production, and editing expertise, as you’ll be responsible for creating and distributing the book all on your own.

For those with no publishing knowhow, there is also UnBound, which is a crowdfunding platform that, if you raise the money, will design, produce, and distribute the book for you. Both Kickstarter and UnBound work on the subscription/pre-order model, in which you pre-sell copies of the book to fund the production and printing.

One final option is to use a service like Lulu to create and print one copy of your book exactly as you envision it. You can then present this beautiful, professionally printed piece to publishers in lieu of your proposal. I was hired to do this for a photographer friend, and it totally worked.
In summary…

To recap: A book proposal is a persuasive document created with the intent of convincing a publisher to take a chance on your book. It is also a wonderful tool for clarifying your project’s vision. In order to craft the most effective pitch possible, talk to people. Notice how you tell the story, and what people respond to. Lastly, the list of things I’ve noted a proposal should contain is not inflexible—rather, it’s totally up to you to be creative with it.

Before I sign off, here’s one final piece of advice: don’t give up! I wrote about five proposals before I published a book. Keep trying, and keep thinking and fine tuning your ideas. Be alert and responsive to what is around you, and if your proposals don’t get accepted right away, try to use each rejection as a learning opportunity.

Good luck! And thanks for reading.


About the Author

Joanna Ebenstein:Writer, Photographer, Curator

Joanna Ebenstein is a Brooklyn-based writer, curator, photographer, and graphic designer. She is the creator of the Morbid Anatomy blog, library, and event series, and was cofounder (with Tracy Hurley Martin) and creative director of the recently shuttered Morbid Anatomy Museum in Brooklyn. Her books include Death: A Graveside Companion, The Anatomical Venus, The Morbid Anatomy Anthology (with Colin Dickey), and Walter Potter’s Curious World of Taxidermy (with Dr Pat Morris). She is currently working on a book about Dutch “artist of death” Frederik Ruysch for MIT Press, and a coffee table book about art and anatomy for Laurence King. She worked as an art director and editor for Alta Mira Press, and as a designer and production artist for Scholastic Publishing. She works regularly with such institutions as The Wellcome Collection and Amsterdam’s Vrolik Museum, and her writing and photography have been published and exhibited internationally.

Today Morbid Anatomy can be visited seasonally in a 1870s former gatehouse at Brooklyn’s Green-Wood Cemetery. You can find out about upcoming events and happenings here.

(This article written by Joanna Ebenstein with illustrations by Darren Shaddick;Source: https://thecreativeindependent.com)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 22, 2024 at 11:03am

Creative Europe: Books and Publishing

Overview of the sector

Publishing is one of the largest cultural industries in Europe, with a total market value estimated at €36-38 billion. According to a 2022 report of the European Publishers Federation, the entire book value chain is estimated to employ more than half a million people. The European book sector is incredibly rich and diverse, with more than 575,000 titles published annually.

However, many readers across Europe do not have access to the richness and diversity of European literature. The primary reasons for this are the linguistic and geographical fragmentation of the market. Literature from many European countries are rarely able to translate into the wide array of languages that make up its landscape.

The book sector has also accelerated its digital transition to address the changing habits of the market, so that it can broaden its readership and make the diversity of European literature more accessible.

Like many other culture and creative sectors, the publishing and book industry is working to contribute to the European Green Deal transition and rethink the ways industry contributes to the ongoing climate crisis.

The COVID-19 crisis has further amplified these trends and the need to support the recovery and competitiveness of the book sector.

Support for the book sector in the Creative Europe programme

The main objectives of the Creative Europe programme regarding the book sector is to reinforce the circulation of works in Europe, diversify the audience for European literature and strengthen the competitiveness of the publishing sector.

Creative Europe supports the book sector through horizontal funding schemes (cooperation projects, European platforms, European networks, Culture Moves Europe) and through sector specific actions such as support to Literary translation/Circulation of European literary works, the European Union prize for Literature and more recently the Day of European Authors.

In addition, policy actions such as the Open Method of Coordination (on Multilingualism & Translation in 2020-2021 and on Libraries in 2024) enable discussions with the sector, stakeholders and with EU member states and provide policy orientation on key issues.

Literary translation support (Circulation of European Literary Works)

The Creative Europe programme provides funding to organisations operating in the book and publishing sector to encourage the translation, publication, promotion and distribution of European works of fiction, mainly from less-represented European languages. The financial support covers 60% of the total costs of the projects. Most of the promotional activities (authors’ visits, festivals, readings…) are organised in cooperation with booksellers, libraries or literature festivals to reinforce the local/national book ecosystem.

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 22, 2024 at 11:02am

The first Creative Europe programme (2014-2020) supported more than 400 projects in the book and publishing sector, with over 3000 translations of literary works, from more than 40 source languages into more than 30 target languages. More than 2/3 of the supported translations are from lesser-used languages (European languages other than English, Spanish, German and French), which shows the real value of the Programme to safeguard, develop and promote European cultural and linguistic diversity.

Read more about Creative Europe support to literary translation (2021-27)

Since the beginning of the 2021-2027 programme, 90 projects have been selected for the translation and promotion of more than 1,000 books across Europe.

Find out more about the funding scheme “Circulation of European Literary Works”

Cooperation, networks and platforms

In addition to supporting literary translation, the programme co-finances a variety of cooperation, networks and platforms funding schemes’ projects. The following past or ongoing projects are some examples of how Creative Europe supports the book sector throughout the value chain from the author to the reader.

Talent development

CELA (Connecting Emerging Literary Artists) trains and connects 30 emerging authors, 80 emerging translators and 6 emerging literary professionals offering a bigger opportunity to small languages and to drive change.

Poetry promotion

The Versopolis platform created in 2017 has grown over the years to include 23 poetry and literary festivals in Europe. Together they have promoted more than 200 poets from 32 different European languages and over 1,800 of their poems have been published on the website.

Book fairs

The project ALDUS (European Book Fairs’ network) is an international network of the largest book fairs in the world (Frankfurt and Bologna), several national fairs and publishing associations, with the ultimate goal of further professionalising the fast-changing European landscape of publishing.

Booksellers

The project RISE by the International and European federation of booksellers is a three-year project aiming to upscale, reinforce and maximise the capacity and resilience of the European bookselling sector.

Reading

The project Libraries of Emotions brings together various organisations from across Europe to promote a new and innovative way of reading and encourage bibliotherapy sessions in European public libraries.

Inclusion

Every story matters is a project whose aim is to increase the creation, availability and promotion of inclusive books for children and young adults in the EU.

Multilingualism

The main objective of the LEILA project is to create tools and structural dynamics to promote the discoverability of works published in the Arabic language.

(Source: https://culture.ec.europa.eu

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on November 3, 2023 at 8:02pm


閱讀的活力與藝術

這是一本為閱讀的人,或是想要成為閱讀的人而寫的書。尤其是想要閱讀書的人。說得更具體一點,這本書是為那些想把讀書的主要目的當作是增進理解能力的人而寫。

這裏所謂“閱讀的人”(readers),是指那些今天仍然習慣於從書寫文字中汲取大量資訊,以增進對世界了解的人,就和過去歷史上每一個深有教養、智慧的人別無二致。當然,並不是每個人都能做到這一點。即使在收音機、電視沒有出現以前,許多資訊與知識也是從口傳或觀察而得。但是對智能很高又充滿好奇心的人來說,這樣是不夠的。他們知道他們還得閱讀,而他們也真的身體力行。

現代的人有一種感覺,讀書這件事好像已經不再像以往那樣必要了。收音機,特別是電視,取代了以往由書本所提供的部分功能,就像照片取代了圖畫或藝術設計的部分功能一樣。我們不得不承認,電視有部分的功能確實很驚人,譬如對新聞事件的影像處理,就有極大的影響力。收音機最大的特點在於當我們手邊正在做某件事(譬如開車)的時候,仍然能提供我們資訊,為我們節省不少的時間。但在這中間還是有一個嚴肅的議題:到底這些新時代的傳播媒體是否真能增進我們對自己世界的了解?

                                                                           (Source:Reader's Aesthetic)


或許我們對這個世界的了解比以前的人多了,在某種範圍內,知識(knowledge)也成了理解(understanding)的先決條件。這些都是好事。但是,“知識”是否那麼必然是“理解”的先決條件,可能和一般人的以為有相當差距。我們為了“理解”(understand)一件事,並不需要“知道”(know)和這件事相關的所有事情。太多的資訊就如同太少的資訊一樣,都是一種對理解力的阻礙。換句話說,現代的媒體正以壓倒性的泛濫資訊阻礙了我們的理解力。

會發生這個現象的一個原因是:我們所提到的這些媒體,經過太精心的設計,使得思想形同沒有需要了(雖然只是表象如此)。如何將知識分子的態度與觀點包裝起來,是當今最有才智的人在做的最活躍的事業之一。電視觀眾、收音機聽眾、雜誌讀者所面對的是一種復雜的組成—從獨創的華麗辭藻到經過審慎挑選的資料與統計—目的都在讓人不需要面對困難或努力,很容易就整理出“自己”的思緒。但是這些精美包裝的資訊效率實在太高了,讓觀眾、聽眾或讀者根本用不著自己做結論。相反的,他們直接將包裝過後的觀點裝進自己的腦海中,就像錄影機願意接受錄影帶一樣自然。他只要按一個“倒帶”的鈕,就能找到他所需要的適當言論。他根本不用思考就能表現得宜。

※ 主動的閱讀

我們在一開始就說過,我們是針對發展閱讀書的技巧而寫的。但是如果你真的跟隨並鍛煉這些閱讀的技巧,你便可以將這些技巧應用在任何印刷品的閱讀上—報紙、雜誌、小冊子、文章、短訊,甚至廣告。

既然任何一種閱讀都是一種活動,那就必須要有一些主動的活力。完全被動,就閱讀不了—我們不可能在雙眼停滯、頭腦昏睡的狀況下閱讀。既然閱讀有主動、被動之對比,那麼我們的目標就是:第一提醒讀者,閱讀可以是一件多少主動的事。第二要指出的是,閱讀越主動,效果越好。這個讀者比另一個讀者更主動一些,他在閱讀世界裏面的探索能力就更強一些,收獲更多一些,因而也更高明一些。讀者對他自己,以及自己面前的書籍,要求的越多,獲得的就越多。

雖然嚴格說來,不可能有完全被動閱讀這回事,但還是有許多人認為,比起充滿主動的寫跟說,讀與聽完全是被動的事。寫作者及演說者起碼必須要花一點力氣,聽眾或讀者卻什麼也不必做。聽眾或讀者被當作是一種溝通接收器,“接受”對方很賣力地在“給予”、“發送”的訊息。這種假設的謬誤,在認為這種“接收”類同於被打了一拳,或得到一項遺產,或法院的判決。其實完全相反,聽眾或讀者的“接收”,應該像是棒球賽中的捕手才對。[艾德勒·《如何閱讀一本書》(1)]

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on November 1, 2023 at 9:13pm


陳煒·互聯網時代感受閱讀的意義:新語·讓好聲音成爲最強音

互聯網時代的閱讀,是開放體系的閱讀,它把個人選擇和算法推介相結合,形成了基於人的有效判斷的大數據體系,是開放的、可變的、動態的

中國互聯網絡信息中心(CNNIC)發佈的第五十二次《中國互聯網絡發展狀況統計報告》顯示,截至2023年6月,中國網民規模達10.79億人,互聯網普及率達76.4%,其中即時通信、網絡視頻、短視頻用戶規模分別達10.47億人、10.44億人和10.26億人。可以説,互聯網已經成爲人們獲取信息、汲取內容的主要途徑。

時代在變,閱讀方式在變,閱讀的産品形態也在發生改變。我們常常自問,互聯網時代,還需要閱讀嗎?

閱讀是社會進步的重要推動力,不僅有助於我們了解社會、歷史、文化和人類的智慧,從而促進文化交流和跨文化理解,推動人類文明的發展和進步,更能使我們保有科學精神和思考能力。

一體兩面地看,互聯網時代的閱讀,是開放體系的閱讀,它把個人選擇和算法推介相結合,形成了基於人的有效判斷的大數據體系,是開放的、可變的、動態的。這種開放式的閱讀可以幫助我們了解不同的文化、思想和價值觀,從而讓我們更加開放、包容,也有助於我們更好認識世界。

互聯網時代的閱讀邏輯,決定着出版行業何去何從。對從業者而言,保持專業性是必須的堅持。

在互聯網時代,出版工作者需要積極應對流量本身對於出版業內容的影響、組織架構的影響以及受衆對於傳播形式的理解和影響,堅持專業性是保障信息質量的基礎,讓讀者能夠獲得真實、可靠的信息。

同時,在信息傳播日益全球化的今天,出版行業需要面對各種文化的交流互鑒。堅持出版專業性,可以更好地把握信息傳播的風向和社會需求,保証出版行業的可持續發展,讓讀者獲得更好的閱讀體驗和服務。

雖然行業面臨着發展的十字路口,但我們堅信,隻要高質量的知識是被社會所需要的,出版工作就有意義。

今年,中信出版提出了“聲音出版”的理念來回應行業變化。最主要的原因,是我們發現讀者雖然每天在手機上花費大量時間,但閱讀質量和思考能力逐漸下降,對於複雜的學術文獻和長篇小説更是難以專注。這需要我們保持警惕,不能沉迷於短時間的碎片化閱讀,要堅持深度閱讀,提高思考能力和閱讀質量。

出版是一個古老而常新的行業,中信出版一直有一句口號:我們提供知識,以應對變化的世界。這包含着我們對於出版的理解,以及對於行業使命的期許。無論從哪個角度來説,閱讀的重要性都不言而喻。當前,網絡的發展、技術的進步讓享受閱讀、獲得知識更加便利。希望有更多人走進書的世界,在日益多樣的方式和愈發豐富的選擇中,感受閱讀的樂趣和文字的力量。

(作者爲中信出版集團股份有限公司總經理;2023年10月30日《 人民日報 》 10 版)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on September 13, 2023 at 5:07pm

孔子晚年之時,傾力整理國故,相傳「刪詩正樂」,顯然是指《詩經》。基於《詩經》的詩教,屬古代教育的基礎科目之一,在襄助人文化成的實踐中,意義重大,備受推崇。孔子的詩教思想,首先關注的是「興、觀、群、怨」四個向度和與其相應的社交、外交、倫理和審美等多重功能,其次是「邇之事父」的家庭倫常功能和「遠之事君」的朝政職責功能,再就是「多識於鳥獸草木之名」的致知功能。已往對孔子詩教的研究,大多偏於思理闡發,看重道德本位和審美價值,比較忽視致知作用。這種致知,實際上是博聞多識的一種途徑,或者說是「格物致知」的一項內容,是君子人格修養過程中不可或缺的重要環節。

從《詩經》中看,古代的先民,生活多以農耕為主,與大自然甚為親近,對環境物象十分敏感。因此,在言志、抒情、記事之時,或比、或興、或賦,物我互動,彼此映襯,經常達到渾然合一的境界。由此生成的詩歌意象,鳥獸草木等因素占有很大比重,除了自身所寄寓的象征或顯隱喻示之類的意味外,也順理成為輔助性的致知之源(sources for cognitive investigation)。這裏所言的「輔助性」,主要是指通過了解相關鳥獸草木的特征與習性,進而輔助人們擴展知識廣度和提升讀詩釋義深度,以便上達「博文約禮」的崇高目的。

據三國吳人陸璣的《毛詩草木鳥獸蟲魚疏》統計,全《詩經》所涉及的動植物共有150種,其中草類52種,木類36種,鳥類23種,獸類9種,蟲類20種,魚類10種。後來清代學者徐雪樵作了進一步的研究,發現《詩經》所載的動植物總數共計355種。[1]5-6按其六大分類,鳥類計有38餘種:

黃鳥、鵲、雀、燕、雁、流離、烏、鶉、雞、鳧、鴇、晨風、鵜、鵯、鸛、脊、令、隼、鶴、桑扈、鶯、鳶、鴛鴦、鷹、鳳凰、鷺、桃蟲、雎鳩、斑鳩、布谷、(有冠長尾)雄雉、(無冠短尾)雌雉等。

獸類計有29餘種:

馬、麟、鼠、麇、鹿、牛、羊、兔、虎、豹、盧(獵犬)、碩鼠、貉、狐、貍、熏鼠(地鼠)、兕(野牛)、熊、羆(大而黃色之熊)、豺、狼、長毛猿、豕(小豬)、貓、狴、象等。

蟲類計有27餘種:

螽斯、草蟲、阜螽、蝤蠐、螓、蛾、蒼蠅、蟋蟀、浮遊、蠶、莎雞、伊威、蛸、宵行、蜴、螟蛉、蜮、螟、蟊、賊、青蠅、蜂等。

魚類計有19餘種:

魴、鰥、鯉、鱒、鰭、鯊、嘉魚、鱉、龜、黿、蛇、貝、鰷等。

草本類計有88餘種:

荇、葛、卷耳、苜、蘩、蕨、薇、藻、茅、葭、蓬、瓠、葑、菲、荼、薺、苓、茨、唐、麥、綠、竹、瓠、芄蘭、草、黍、稷、蕭、艾、麻、荷、龍、茹、蘆、芍藥、莠、莫、稻、梁、蘞、蒹、菅、苕、蒲、萇楚、葵、菽、瓜、壺、韭、蘋、蒿、芩、臺、萊、莪、芑、蓄、莞、蔚、蔦、女蘿、芹、藍、荀、蓼、茆等。

其中「荼」分三種:一是苦菜之荼,見邶風《谷風》篇「誰謂荼苦,如甘如薺」;二是白色茅花,見鄭風《出其東門》篇「有女如荼,雖則如荼,匪我思且」;三是陸上穢草,見周頌《良耜》篇「荼蓼朽止,黍稷茂止」。凡此三者,同名而異形。[2]138

木本類計有54餘種:

桃、楚、甘棠、梅、唐棣、李、棘、榛、栗、椅、桐、梓、漆、桑、檜、松、柏、翟、杜、木瓜、杞、檀、舜、柳、樞、栲、椒、栩、楊、條、棗、常棣、枸、柞、椐、梧桐、喬木、扶蘇等。

其中「棘」分兩種:一為多刺難長的叢生小樹,見邶風《凱風》篇「凱風自南,吹彼棘心」;二為小酸棗樹,見魏風《園有桃》篇「園有棘,其實之食」。另外,「杞」亦分三種:一指澤柳,見鄭風《將仲子》篇「將仲子兮,無逾我裏,無折我樹杞」;二指枸杞,見小雅《四牡》篇「翩翩者騅,載飛載止,集於苞杞」;三指可以做藥材的「枸骨」,見小雅《南山有臺》篇「南山有杞,北山有李;樂之君子,民之父母;樂之君子,德音不已」。[2]138

以上所舉,並非總括無遺。陳大章所撰的《詩傳名物集覽》,就「列有飛潛動植三百六十條」,的確達到「旁蒐博攬,萃薈兼該」的程度,但其同代學者認為並不盡然。③據當代學者胡樸安的統計結果,全《詩經》中所涉及的動植物總數高達336種。其中「言草者一百零五,言木者七十五,言鳥者三十九,言獸者六十七,言蟲者二十九,言魚者二十;其他言器者約三百餘」。[3]

實際上,《詩經》所載的名物種類,遠不止鳥獸草木蟲魚,還有其他許多器類。譬如禮樂器具、農具、日常生活器具與資料、自然現象中的日月星辰與風雨雷電、歷史地理中的山川河流與行政區域名稱,以及當時各國的風俗習慣和不同稱呼,等等。若詳加考釋,再加上「飛潛動植三百六十條」,總數或許逾千。


【注釋】


①參見王柯平《流變與會通——中西詩樂美學釋論》「一孔子詩教思想發微」,北京:北京大學出版社,2013年,第1-25頁。

②轉引自康曉城《先秦儒家詩教思想研究》,臺北:文史哲出版社,1988年,第188頁;陸璣、毛晉《毛詩草木鳥獸蟲魚疏廣要》,上海:商務印書館,1936年。

③陳大章《詩傳名物集覽》,上海:商務印書館,1937年。見丘良驥《序》

(見:王柯平·詩教的致知功能——「多識於鳥獸草木之名」疏解)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on September 13, 2023 at 5:07pm

在歐洲和西方其他地區,在線教學是一個備受爭議的話題。例如,波蘭剛剛啟動了一項計劃,從四年級開始為每個學生配備一臺政府資助的筆記本電腦,希望借此提高該國的技術競爭力。

在美國,冠狀病毒大流行促使公立學校向中小學生,提供數百萬臺用聯邦大流行救濟金購買的筆記本電腦。教科書出版商麥格勞-希爾公司(McGraw Hill)美國學校部總裁肖恩-瑞安(Sean Ryan)說,但數字鴻溝依然存在,這也是美國學校傾向於同時使用印刷版和數字版教科書的部分原因。"

瑞安說:"在那些家裏沒有網絡連接的地方,教育工作者不願意使用數字技術,因為他們考慮的是最弱勢的(學生),要確保他們能和其他人一樣接受教育。德國是歐洲最富裕的國家之一,但其發展緩慢是出了名的。

學校數字化狀況在德國的16個州之間也存在差異,這些州負責自己的課程。許多學生可以在沒有任何必需的數字化教育,比如編程等的情況下完成學業。一些家長擔心他們的孩子可能無法在就業市場上,與其他國家受過更好技術培訓的年輕人競爭。德國作家和互聯網顧問薩沙·洛博認爲,需要全國性的努力來提高德國學生的水平,否則該國將在未來面臨落後的風險。

他在去年底接受德國公共廣播公司ZDF採訪時説:“如果我們不能使教育數字化,學習數字化工作的方法,那麼20年後我們將不再是一個繁榮的國家。”爲了應對瑞典四年級閱讀成績下降的問題,瑞典政府宣佈今年在該國學校購買圖書方面投資6.85億瑞典克朗(6000萬歐元或6470萬美元)。2024年和2025年還將每年額外投資5億瑞典克朗,以加快教科書重新進入學校的速度。並非所有專家都確信瑞典的回歸基礎教育措施完全是出於學生最大利益考慮。

墨爾本莫納什大學教育學教授尼爾·塞爾溫説,批評技術的影響是“保守政治家們的一種受歡迎的舉措”,是一種表明對傳統價值觀的承諾的巧妙方式。“瑞典政府在説沒有証據表明技術能夠改善學習時是有道理的,但我認爲這是因爲沒有明確的証據表明技術在教育中起到了什麼作用,”塞爾溫補充道:“技術只是教育中一系列複雜因素中的一部分。”

舊金山的Jocelyn Gecker;波蘭華沙的Vanessa Gera;柏林的Kirsten Grieshaber爲此報導做出了貢獻。

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on August 9, 2023 at 5:12pm


瑞典:逆潮數字教育;課本和手寫作業重回學校


By CHARLENE PELE

API Updated 8:42 AM GMT+8, September 11, 2023

斯德哥爾摩(美聯社)--上個月,隨著瑞典各地的幼兒重返校園,他們的許多老師開始重新重視印刷書籍、安靜的閱讀時間和手寫練習,而減少了平板電腦、獨立在線研究和鍵盤輸入技能的使用時間。

政界人士和專家質疑瑞典的超數字化教育方式(包括在幼兒園引入平板電腦)是否導致了學生基本技能的下降,而回歸更傳統的學習方式正是對這一質疑的回應。

瑞典學校部長洛塔-埃德霍爾姆Lotta Edholm作為新的中右翼聯合政府的一員於11個月前上任,她是全面擁抱技術的最大批評者之一。

"瑞典的學生需要更多的教科書。"實體書對學生的學習很重要。這位部長上個月在一份聲明中宣布,政府希望推翻國家教育局關於學前教育必須使用數字設備的決定。該部還告訴美聯社,政府計劃更進一步,完全終止 6 歲以下兒童的數字學習。

雖然瑞典學生的閱讀能力高於歐洲平均水平,但一項針對四年級閱讀水平的國際評估--國際閱讀素養研究進展--顯示,瑞典兒童的閱讀能力在2016年至2021年間有所下降。2021年,瑞典四年級學生的平均成績為544分,比2016年的555分有所下降。不過,他們的表現仍使瑞典與臺灣並列成為測試總分第七高的國家。


相比之下,排名第一的新加坡在同一時期的PIRLS閱讀成績,從576分提高到了587分,英格蘭的平均閱讀成績僅略有下降,從2016年的559分降至2021年的558分。教育專家說,一些學習上的不足可能是冠狀病毒大流行造成的,也可能反映出越來越多的移民學生的母語不是瑞典語,但學校上課時過度使用屏幕可能會導致青少年在核心科目上落後。"

瑞典卡羅林斯卡研究所(Karolinska Institute)上個月在一份關於該國國家教育數字化戰略的聲明中說:"有明確的科學證據表明,數字工具會損害而不是促進學生的學習。"

瑞典卡羅林斯卡學院是一所備受尊敬的醫學院,專注於研究,該學院表示:"我們認為,重點應該回歸到通過印刷教科書和教師的專業知識獲取知識,而不是主要從未經準確性審查的免費數字資源中獲取知識。數字化學習工具的快速應用也引起了聯合國教育和文化機構的關注。

在上個月發表的一份報告中,聯合國教科文組織發出了 "關於在教育中適當使用技術的緊急呼籲"。該報告敦促各國加快學校的互聯網連接,但同時警告說,教育技術的應用方式絕不能取代由教師親自授課的方式,並應支持全民優質教育的共同目標。

在瑞典首都斯德哥爾摩,9 歲的利文-帕爾默(Liveon Palmer)Djurgardsskolan 小學三年級的學生,他表示贊同花更多的課餘時間在線學習。"


他在最近的一次訪問中告訴美聯社記者:"我喜歡在學校裏多寫點東西,比如在紙上,因為這樣感覺更好,你知道的。他的老師卡塔麗娜-布拉內柳斯(Catarina Branelius)說,即使在國家級審查之前,她也會有選擇地要求學生在課堂上使用平板電腦。"

Branelius 說:"我在數學課上使用平板電腦,我們也在使用一些應用程序,但我不會用平板電腦來寫文字。10 歲以下的學生 "需要時間、練習和鍛煉手寫......然後再讓他們用平板電腦寫字"。

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, iconada.tv supports creators since July, 2009.

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