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Comment by Place Link on February 1, 2024 at 2:56pm

易沛鴻披露,舊會所樓上將會是關德興紀念館及霹古岡州史料館,樓下則是功夫茶樓,並希望透過此紀念館,恢復舊會所當年的光輝,讓該處有人潮、有人氣。

「我們霹靂古岡州是怡保武術界的台柱,古岡州是武術之鄉,我們公會有獅團,並在70年代時有很高的聲譽,唯如今卻出現有師傅沒徒弟的情況,導致獅團青黃不接,讓我感到傷心。」

因此,他希望借此機會,辦關德興紀念館,重新激起鄉親、年輕一代,對習武和賞武精神的興趣,再次掀起怡保練武的浪潮。

位於怡保舊街場的霹靂古岡州舊會所,將籌辦關德興紀念館。(霹古岡州提供


鍾子昌:辦母語班免失傳

大馬古聯會理事長拿督鍾子昌呼籲各屬會,多注重母語,包括舉辦母語班等,避免母語在未來失傳。

「所指的母語並不是指普通話(華語),而是如台山話、福建話、潮州話等。」

他說,會所是傳承文化的地方,因此希望各屬會能多舉辦母語班,傳承母語文化。


設文物館
讓鄉親聯誼

工委會主席宋偉釗指出,希望透過設立文物館,讓會所成為鄉親誼的地方。

他說,會所是讓鄉親聯誼的地方,鄉親在一些佳節時,在會所辦聚會,十分溫馨。

「但如今情況不再一樣,因此希望透過辦一個文物館,讓鄉親聯誼。」

會上,該會顧問潘妹也捐獻4800令吉的款項,給霹靂古岡州公會,同時歌手歐儷雯也把現場售賣唱片,籌獲的款項,捐給霹靂古岡州婦女組。

出席者包括大馬古聯會顧問拿督梁景輝與呂兆祥、理事長拿督鍾子昌、副理事長郭美玲、霹靂古岡州公會會長拿督易沛鴻、副會長陳錫康、財政黃耀溢、婦女組主任梁中雁等。

關德興紀念館將展示關德興的照片與兵器。

(原載:2023年11月26日 中國報

Comment by Place Link on January 27, 2024 at 11:27am


魏美琪:橫跨甲柔森 信步跨三州· 亞沙漢金山村妙不可言

亞沙漢地區橫跨馬六甲、柔佛及森美蘭州,位於三州的交界處,其中亞沙漢大街後方的溝渠則是甲柔兩地的分割線,當地的居民自小在屬柔佛州境內的亞沙漢中華學校接受母語教育的熏陶!

根據記載,亞沙漢於1880年前還是原始森林,由於打仗,設有兵器庫,並以磨兵器而得名。磨的馬來文為Asah,而磨研後的器具則稱為Asahan,因此命名為亞沙漢(Asahan)。

亞沙漢金山村顧名思義,是位於金山腳下的一個寧靜的新村。該新村以華裔為主,村民包括三大種族,大家和平相處其樂融融。
僅剩約50戶人家

亞沙漢新村村長黃梅美受訪指出,亞沙漢位於三州邊界,而該村位於馬六甲州,村內目前僅剩下約50戶人家,約200名村民居住在村內。

「新村內有5戶巫裔家庭、2戶印裔家庭,其余村民皆為華裔,並以福建人為主,如今新村更是變成老人村,村民逐漸老化。」

她說,該村村民以做芭園地為主,但是亦不少很多園主因為年紀大了,孩子不接手,唯有出售園地予外地人。

「還有一些村民以割膠為生,一些園地則翻種榴梿或有種,有者則種植有機菜打發時間。」

黃梅美是前村長黃振利的女兒,她於2015年擔任市議員,協助處理民生及福利問題,以及協助父親處理新村的事務,並於2018年擔任村長一職。

她說,在全國面對冠病疫情爆發期間,該村的疫情並不嚴重,不過村委會都有協助分發物資予有需要的人,同時本身過去也積極協助單身或孤苦老人申請福利金,照顧他們的福利。

「如今新村內設施,包括一個禮堂、兒童游樂場、輔導中心(每個月村委會開會的地點)。現有籃球場也有計劃提升為有蓋籃球場,目前新村發展官已提呈相關報告予房屋地方政府部門,希望能夠盡快落實。」

她說,該村的禮堂獲得地方政府部門批准4萬令吉的撥款,於兩個月前才進行維修或提升工作,包括油漆及更換損壞的設施,讓村民享有更好的福利。

Comment by Place Link on January 27, 2024 at 11:26am

年輕人往外流

亞沙漢雖然屬於野新市議會轄區,但是國會選區卻是屬於亞羅牙也國會選區。她也感謝馬華亞羅牙也區會主席拿督威拉古乃光在擔任亞羅牙也國會議員期間,給予該村協助。隨著亞沙漢州議員法依魯羅斯蘭上任後,表現很積極,也設立Whatsapp群組 ,集合村長、市議員等人在群組,若提出任何問題,包括路燈等,皆有人會協助處理。

她說,亞沙漢共有三位屬於馬六甲的巫裔村長、一位華裔村長,另一名柔佛的華裔村長,大家都會互相交流及協助解決問題。

黃梅美指出,目前一些村民也面對延長地契問題,一些僅剩10年以下的延長地契申請多數被拒絕,因此她希望州政府能夠給予關注,解決村民的隱憂。

「亞沙漢一帶發展不大,很多年輕人都選擇到外地闖,包括在新加坡、柔佛、吉隆坡一帶打拼,每逢過年過節回來,今年最值得高興,因為村民不再受到行管令限制,能夠自由回鄉過年。」

她說,在冠病疫情爆發前,當地每年都會慶祝新春晚會、不時在中秋節舉辦月光會,但是行管令後,因為疫情的緣故而取消。

慶中元最熱鬧

「其中最熱鬧的是農歷七月慶中元、新村及大街皆有慶祝,其中金山村稱為慶中元,大街則慶祝盂蘭勝會,每年農歷七月二十七至二十九,一連三天拜普渡,外地的游子紛紛回鄉參與其盛。」

她說,疫情爆發前,有關活動每年都會請歌仔戲、歌台助興、舉辦70至100席的宴會,標福品等,但是疫情爆發後就是村民拜祭後一起用餐。

「行管令後有關活動顯得比較冷清,沒有歌台,只有歌仔戲,不過每年還是很熱鬧,除了購買一只生豬,讓村民烹煮。村民除了一起享用美食,家庭主婦也會一起折金紙,游子也回來拜祭,甚至比新年還熱鬧。

至於亞沙漢大街溝渠後的地段屬於柔佛州,中華學校位於柔佛州,但是學生卻是馬六甲人,目前該校共有72位學生,包括16位學前教育班的學生。

黃梅美指出,該校目前共有50名華裔、4名巫裔、2名印裔及16名原住民學生,由10位老師教學,目前尚缺兩位老師的空缺待填補。

亞沙漢瀑布 早期很有名

亞沙漢金山也流傳著神話故事,讓該金山披上一層神秘感,過去也有不少人聞名到亞沙漢瀑布游玩,是當地著名的旅游景點之一。

黃梅美指出,早期的亞沙漢瀑布很出名,很多人一家大小到該瀑布戲水玩樂。當地有一個大水池,俗稱為「夢湖」,更是早期民眾拍攝婚紗照及拍照取景的好去處,唯如今已經被有關當局封鎖著。

她說,亞沙漢瀑布屬於柔佛轄區,而相隔一條馬路的Laman Tiga Budaya水上樂園這屬於馬六甲轄區,每逢周末及周日或學校假期都吸引很多家長帶孩子去游玩。

缺少油站 只能摩托車店添油

亞沙漢通往柔佛州的利民達的新路於2018年通行,該路段貫穿柔森甲三州長達17.2公裡,其中800公尺坐落於森州境內,從而縮短亞沙漢及利民達兩地的距離,為兩地居民提供便利。

黃梅美指出,約5年前開辟新路通往利民達及昔加末,前往利民達只需約20分鐘的車程,因此很多居民選擇驅車到利民達,有一段時間,利民達居民也喜歡前來亞沙漢品嘗姜酒面線,不過夜間行駛有關路段時則必須要小心山豬經過。

「由於昔加末也擁有很多餐館,包括日本餐、韓國餐,有時適逢假期時,馬六甲面對塞車問題,居民則選擇到昔加末用餐或聚會。」

本地電視劇《媽姐》曾取景

她坦言,亞沙漢缺少油站,因此居民只能到附近的摩托車店打油,否則必須到約15公裡外的野新市鎮打油,以前很多村民到野新或東甲購物,如今則寧願到利民達或昔加末消費,相當方便,又不會面對塞車問題。

黃梅美也表示,亞沙漢大街也有警局、診所及郵政局等,近年來也開設99連鎖便利店,因此居民購物也比較方便。

值得一提的是,亞沙漢大街也於2017年吸引本地電視劇《媽姐》到當地取景,而當地亦有一間古老咖啡店相信有百年歷史,也是村民喝茶聚會的好去處。(20.8.2023 星洲日報)

Comment by Place Link on January 26, 2024 at 9:57am


张庆信:备战旅游年拨款美化景点·张庆信促各州找出特色

(吉隆坡23日讯)为筹备2026年大马旅游年及促进国内旅游业发展,旅游部承诺援助申请拨款资金修复、提升和美化各州旅游景点,希望相关机构提交资助申请优先事项列表。

旅游、艺术及文化部长拿督斯里张庆信表示,本身日前与各州旅游业相关行政议员,包括州议员及官员进行交流,会上也讨论各州旅游业现况,探讨本土行业特色及促销价值,通过集思广益,以期整合旅游资源,造福当地居民。

“当中,旅游部承诺尽最大努力协助申请合理资源配置拨款改善景点设施,比如修复现已废弃的珍尼湖,希望相关机构提交拨款资助申请列出优先事项,以让这些需修复计划可以分阶段实施。”

玻霹甲旅游年

他今日在脸书专业帖文指出,上述讨论也涉及促使玻璃市、霹雳和马六甲旅游年活动取得成功筹办,以为2026年大马旅游年做好准备工作。

“旅游部通过此次会议交流,盼能更准确发现每个州属的景点特点,制定适当的改进计划及进行促销和宣传,让国际游客对大马景点的认识不仅限于吉隆坡或沙巴,相对的,马六甲、槟城等古城旅游区也将促进各州旅游经济作出贡献,将旅游经济全面发展全国各州。”

他说,彭亨、森美兰和吉打州是有潜力吸引游客的州属,如彭亨州的海滩、森美兰州的华人寺庙和吉打州的稻田,但由于交通、基础设施、宣传等条件有限,以致没有真正激发其旅游经济潜力。

“如果他们能够获得必要的资源来实施改造计划,肯定会吸引更多的国际游客。”

办更多国际化旅游活动

张庆信表示,除了鼓励与各地方政府合作举办更多大型活动,旅游部也将协助举办高水平或更多国际化旅游活动。

他说,这些活动包括皇家彭亨旗鱼国际挑战赛、马拉松赛事等、森美兰州的瓜拉庇劳西天宫、波德申的帆船和猫山王旅游配套等,以满足近年来的新旅游趋势,如极限运动、越野户外活动等。

“马来西亚旅游局还将派出更多来自各州的代表来推广和进行路演,鼓励各州旅游业者顺利与国际市场接轨,包括通过旅游部与国际电商平台的合作,推广旅游、艺术和旅游等相关国家文化。”

他说,本身将在农历新年后,前往相关州属进行勘察、考察,致力于根据现有能力提供协助和支持,包括各方面援助旅游业者特别是通过旅游部相关机构加强合作与宣传。(2024年01月24日 马新社)

Comment by Place Link on January 17, 2024 at 7:26pm


东海岸经济区:关丹、北根与云冰旅游业

(关丹4日讯)彭亨州务大臣拿督斯里旺罗斯迪表示,自东海岸经济特区发展理事会(ECERDC)(East Coast Economic Region [ECER] Development Council )成立以来,彭亨已实施14个总值40亿令吉的高影响力项目。

他说,该项目涵盖关丹、北根和云冰等地区的旅游业、制造业、基础设施发展、农业企业和社会经济等多个领域。

他表示,这些项目包括马中关丹产业园(MCKIP)、北根汽车园、甘孟清真食品中心、彭亨科技园(甘孟 Gambang,Pahang Technology Park),以及关丹港扩建及城市发展 。

农业综合企业方面,已完成的项目包括姆阿占莎(Muadzam Shah)畜牧业研究与创新中心(MSCRIC)和云冰综合黄梨产业(RIPP)

旅游业则涉及珍尼湖州立公园和北根遗产旅游发展,关丹海滨区的关丹188塔、土产手工艺商业中心和河畔公园。

他是今日在彭亨州议会议上回答巴登东姑州议员穆斯达巴隆提问时,这么说。

后者要求列出东海岸经济特区发展理事会下的高影响力项目。

确保东彭发展平衡

旺罗斯迪也介绍其他几个正在实施的项目,即关丹的遮拉丁海龟保护和信息中心及北根旧市镇的旧建筑升级改造。

正在实施的还有马中关丹产业园的3个制造业项目和一个基础设施发展项目,涉及从登嘉楼甘马挽到彭亨州重要工业地格宾的输水管道。

在回应穆斯达巴隆口头质询时,旺罗斯迪并不否认东彭和中彭有更多发展和拨款,但州政府已采取行动,确保东彭发展更加平衡。

“州政府不仅依赖东海岸经济特区发展理事会,事实上自2018年,我担任州务大臣第一年已建立‘西彭Plus’(Pahang Barat Plus)计划促进区经济,许多项目正在西部实施。”

西彭包括文冬县、劳勿县和立卑县,而连突县和百乐县(Bera)则囊括在西彭Plus。

放眼明年逾11亿税收

彭亨州政府收入连续两年突破10亿令吉大关,放眼明年11亿3700万令吉税收目标。

彭亨州务大臣拿督斯里旺罗斯迪表示,截至12月3日,彭亨州政府已取得11亿6000万令吉收入,超过2023年财政预算案设定的10亿8000万令吉目标。

“这是一项了不起的成就,彭亨州政府连续两年收入超过10亿令吉。这使彭亨与雪兰莪和柔佛等其他发达州属持平。”

他表示,截至今年11月28日,彭亨州的投资总额为164亿令吉,其中包括47亿令吉的国内投资和116亿令吉的外国投资。

“这些数字清楚地表明,投资者对彭亨州的潜力和稳定充满信心。”

他今天在彭亨州议会提呈以“关注彭亨,人民繁荣”为主题的2024年彭亨财政预算案时,如此指出。

调查漏税降低债务

旺罗斯迪说,彭亨州政府将继续解决漏税问题,以增加对国库的贡献,并实现明年目标。

“我们将继续调查漏税情况,并监督参与彭亨州种植园计划的联邦机构,除了林业,我们也将探讨其他收入来源,包括可再生能源。”

同时,他表示州政府已成功减债,从去年的10亿3000万令吉减至今年11月的约9亿8349万令吉。

“如果在各方和合作下,债务能够进一步减少,彭亨州政府将继续努力降低债务。”

(2023年12月05日南洋商报;原題:大臣:涵盖多区多领域 彭40亿发展14大项目)

Comment by Place Link on January 14, 2024 at 10:37am


Old Pahang Kingdom


Old Pahang Kingdom (Malay: Kerajaan Pahang Tua[4]) was a historical Malay polity centred in the Pahang region in the east coast of Malay Peninsula. The polity appeared in foreign records from as early as the 5th century[5] and at its height, covered much of modern state of Pahang and the entire southerly part of the peninsula.[6] Throughout its pre-Melakan history, Pahang was established as a mueang[7] or naksat[8] of some major regional Malayic mandalas including Langkasuka,[9] Srivijaya[10] and Ligor.[11] Around the middle of the 15th century, it was brought into the orbit of Melaka Sultanate and subsequently established as a vassal Muslim Sultanate in 1470, following the coronation of the grandson of the former Maharaja as the first Sultan of Pahang.[12]

The naming of Pahang relates to the ancient practice in Malayic culture of defining territorial definitions and apportioning lands by water-sheds.[13] The term 'Pahang' in referring to the kingdom thus, is thought to originate from the name of Pahang River.[14] There have been many theories on the origin of the name. According to Malay legend, across the river at Kampung Kembahang where the present stream of the Pahang parts company with the Pahang Tua, in ancient time stretched a huge mahang tree (macaranga) from which the river and kingdom derived their name. This legend agrees with oral tradition among Proto-Malay Jakun peoples that say their forefathers called the country Mahang.[15]

Other notable theory was espoused by William Linehan, that relates the early foundation of the kingdom to the settlers from ancient Khmer civilisation, and claims its naming origin to the word saamnbahang (Khmer: សំណប៉ាហាំង) meaning 'tin', based on the discovery of prehistoric tin mines in the state.[16]

There were many variations of the name Pahang in history. The Book of Song referred to the kingdom as Pohuang or Panhuang.[17] The Chinese chronicler Zhao Rugua knew it as Pong-fong. According to the continuation of Ma Duanlin's Wenxian Tongkao, Pahang was called Siam-lao thasi. By Arabs and Europeans, the kingdom was variously styled Pam, Pan, Paam, Paon, Phaan, Phang, Paham, Pahan, Pahaun, Phaung, Phahangh.[18]

Comment by Place Link on January 14, 2024 at 10:36am


Prehistory

Archaeological evidence revealed the existence of human habitation in the area that is today Pahang from as early as the paleolithic age. At Gunung Senyum have been found relics of mesolithic civilisation using paleolithic implements. At Sungai Lembing, Kuantan, have been discovered paleolithic artefacts chipped and without trace of polishing, the remains of a 6,000-year-old civilisation.[19] Traces of Hoabinhian culture is represented by a number of limestone cave sites.[20] Late neolithic relics are abundant, including polished tools, quoit discs, stone ear pendants, stone bracelets and cross-hatched bark pounders.[21] By around 400 BC, the development of bronze casting led to the flourishing of the Đông Sơn culture, notably for its elaborate bronze war drums.[22]

The early iron civilisation in Pahang that began around the beginning of Common Era is associated by prehistorians with the late neolithic culture. Relics from this era, found along the rivers are particularly numerous in Tembeling Valley, which served as the old main northern highway of communication. Ancient gold workings in Pahang are thought to date back to this early Iron Age as well.[23]

Early period

The Kra Isthmus region of the Malay peninsula and its peripheries are recognised by historians as the cradle of Malayic civilisations.[24] Primordial Malayic kingdoms are described as tributaries to Funan by 2nd century Chinese sources.[25]

Ancient settlements can be traced from Tembeling to as far south as Merchong. Their tracks can also be found in deep hinterland of Jelai, along the Chini Lake, and up to the head-waters of the Rompin.[26] A polity identified as Koli in Geographia or Kiu-Li, centred on the estuary of Pahang River south of Langkasuka, flourished in the 3rd century CE. It possessed an important international port, where many foreign ships stopped to barter and resupply.[27] In common with most of the states in the Malay Peninsula during that time, Kiu-Li was in contact with Funan. The Chinese records mention that an embassy sent to Funan by the Indian king Murunda sailed from Kiu-Li's port (between 240 and 245 CE). Murunda presented to the Funanese king Fan Chang four horses from the Yuezhi (Kushan) stud farms.[28]

Comment by Place Link on January 13, 2024 at 2:45pm

By the middle of the 5th century, another polity suggestive as ancient Pahang, was described in the Book of Song as Pohuang or Panhuang (婆皇). The king of Pohuang, She-li- Po-luo-ba-mo ('Sri Bhadravarman') was recorded to have sent an envoy to the Liu Song court in 449–450 with forty-one types of products. In 456–457, another envoy of the same country, led by a Senapati, arrived at the Chinese capital, Jiankang.[29] This ancient Pahang is believed to had been established later as a mueang[30] to the mandala of Langkasuka-Kedah centred in modern-day Patani region that rose to prominence with the regression of Funan from the 6th century.[31] The Langkasuka-Kedah with its city states that controlled both coastal fronts of Malay peninsula, assumed importance in the trading network involving Rome, India and China.[32] The growth in trade brought in foreign influence throughout these city states. The discovery of many Buddhist votive tablets and Hindu icons points toward strong Indian influence during this period.[33]

By the beginning of the 8th century, Langkasuka-Kedah came under the military and political hegemony of Srivijaya. However, the gradual domination of Langkasuka-Kedah was not achieved by conventional warfare, and no records of major seaborne naval expeditions exist. The submission of Langkasuka-Kedah to the might of Srivijaya was of benefit and interest to the former for, as a commercial centre, it was useful to be allied to a powerful with a navy strong enough to protect them.[34]

Classical period

In the centuries that followed, up to the final decline of Srivijaya, Langkasuka-Kedah was one of its closest allies and Kedah rose to become a principal port and even the seat of the Srivijayan Maharaja. Langkasuka-Kedah's fortune were, therefore intertwined with Srivijaya's, and the former's decline only came after the fall of the latter to Chola raids from South India in the 11th century.[35] The power vacuum left by the collapse of Srivijaya was filled by the rise of Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom, commonly known in Malay tradition as 'Ligor'. By the 13th century, the kingdom succeeded to incorporate most of the Malay Peninsula including Pahang under its mandala. During this period, Pahang, designated as Muaeng Pahang[36] was established as one of the twelve naksat city states[37] of Ligor.[38] In the early 14th century, the fortune of Ligor was in turn eclipsed by the rise of Thai Buddhist power, and the expansion southwards by Ram Khamhaeng of Sukhotai who brought it under Thai hegemony.[39]

The 14th century was the time of the earliest recorded evidence of Islam in the east coast of Malay peninsula.[40][41] The period also coincides with Pahang, began consolidating its influence in the southern part of the Malay peninsula. The kingdom, described by Portuguese historian, Manuel Godinho de Erédia as Pam, was one of the two kingdoms of Malayos in the peninsula, in succession to Pattani, that flourished before the establishment of Melaka in the 15th century. The Pahang ruler then, titled Maharaja, was also the overlord of countries of Ujong Tanah ('land's end'), the southerly part of the peninsula including Temasek.[42] The Majapahit chronicle, Nagarakretagama even used the name Pahang to designate the Malay peninsula, an indication of the importance of this kingdom.[43]

Comment by Place Link on January 13, 2024 at 2:44pm

The History of Ming records several envoy missions from Pahang to the Ming court in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the year 1378, Maharaja Tajau sent envoys with a letter on a gold leaf and bringing as tribute six foreign slaves and products of the country. In the year 1411, during the reign of Maharaja Pa-la-mi-so-la-ta-lo-si-ni (transliterated by historian as 'Parameswara Teluk Chini'), he also sent envoys carrying tributes. The Chinese returned the favour in 1412 by sending the legendary Admiral Zheng He as an envoy to Pahang, and in the year 1414, Pahang sent tribute again to China. In the year 1416, they sent tribute together with Kozhikode and Java envoys, and in return Zheng He was again ordered to go to Pahang.[44]

Melakan invasion

The 15th century witnessed the rise of Melaka Sultanate, which under the Sang Sapurba dynasty had aggressively consolidated its influence on the west coast of Malay peninsula. Earlier, at the end of the 13th century, the dynasty wrested the small trading outpost at Temasek from Pahang influence and established the short-lived Kingdom of Singapura which was sacked by the Javanese a century later. The renegade last king Seri Iskandar Shah established Melaka to succeed Singapura.

Muzaffar Shah, the fifth sultan of Melaka, who reigned from 1445 to 1458, refused to acknowledge the suzerainty of Ligor over his country. The Ligorians, in assertion of their claim, sent an invading army led by Awi Chakri, overland to Melaka. The invaders, who were aided by Pahang auxiliaries, followed the old route by the Tembeling, Pahang and Bera rivers. They were easily defeated and fled back by the same route. Subsequently, they attempted a naval invasion, but were again beaten. Muzaffar Shah then conceived the idea of checking Ligorian pretensions by attacking the Ligor vassal state of Pahang. An expedition was organised by Muzaffar's son, Raja Abdullah and was personally led by the Melakan Bendahara Tun Perak with two hundred sail, big and small, accordingly proceeded to Pahang and conquered it in the year 1454. The reigning ruler of Pahang, Maharaja Dewa Sura, fled to the interior while his daughter Putri Wanang Seri was captured. The victors, anxious to gain the goodwill of the Bendahara, hastened in pursuit of the fugitive king until he was captured and carried together with his daughter to Melaka.[45]

In the year that Pahang was conquered, Raja Abdullah married Putri Wanang Seri, the daughter of the captive king, whose name had been changed, probably on conversion to Islam, to Putri Lela Wangsa. By her he had two sons Raja Ahmad and Raja Muhammad.[46]

Comment by Place Link on January 13, 2024 at 2:43pm


Administration

Little is known on the administrative system used in Pahang, but throughout its history, several government titles are recorded. The government was headed by a maharaja (literally 'emperor') as an absolute monarch,[47] a similar title held by its overlord in Ligor.[48] Towards the end of the kingdom, the maharaja was recorded by de Erédia as belonging to the same dynasty that ruled Ligor.[49] A title known as Senapati was recorded in the Book of Song, a Sanskrit word literally means 'lord of the army'. The Senapati was recorded in the Chinese chronicle to had headed several envoy missions to China.[50] Other than that, a Pahang Shahbandar was known to have ruled Temasek before the island was wrested from Pahang by the Sang Sapurba dynasty. The word Shahbandar is a title adopted from Persian that literally means 'lord of the port'.[51]

The old court name was Inderapura, and the capital has always been known as 'the town'. The pre-Melakans calling it by Sanskrit name Pura, the Malays 'Pekan', the Portuguese 'a Cidade', while the people of Rompin and Bebar described the capital as Pekan Pahang. Pura may have covered a much larger than the town known as Pekan today. In addition to modern Pekan, it appears to have comprised the land on the banks of Pahang river as far as Tanjung Langgar.[52]
Culture

The culture of ancient Pahang was the result of amalgamation of various Mon-Khmer and Malayic cultures.[53][54] The pre-Melakan inhabitants of the country, together with people of Isthmus region's civilisation further north, were collectively referred as 'Siamese' in the Malay Annals[55] of the Melaka Sultanate, although they were identified culturally as Malays by Portuguese historian de Erédia.[56] On the other hand, de Erédia adopted the term 'Siam' and applied it in a broader context, referring to the overlord of these historical 'Siamese' people, that is the Thai kingdom of Ayuthaya.[57] This broad Portuguese application of the term was later popularised as an exonym for successive Thai kingdoms by other European writers.

In the classical Malay text Hikayat Hang Tuah, it was noted that although the Pahang people regarded themselves as Malays, they spoke and sang their folk songs in an outlandish language that differs from the Malay language spoken in Melaka, which would indicate a mixture of tongues and races.[58] The pre-Melakan Pahang people were also described by Fei Xin as the adherents of Mahayana Buddhism, on which were superimposed tantric orgies involving human sacrifices. Its influence in Pahang, though it waned with the introduction of Islam, may be traced up to the beginning of the 17th century.[59]

Economy

The most important product of ancient Pahang was gold. Its auriferous mines were considered the best and the largest in the whole peninsula. It was from here that there came the gold which formed the subject of the ancient trade with Alexandria.[60] The peninsula as a whole was known to the world as a source of the precious metal to the extent that it was proclaimed Chrysḗ Chersónēsos (the golden peninsula) by Ptolemy.[61] According to Fei Xin, Pahang also produced rice, salt which was made by boiling the sea water, and wine by fermenting the sap of the coconut tree. Fei Xin also mentioned on rare and valuable forest products like camphor barus, olibanum, agarwood, sandalwood, sapanwood, pepper and many others. Pahang, in turn, imported silver, coloured silk, Java cloth, copper and ironware, gongs and boards.[62](source: Wikipedia)

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