乡韵是指族韵、情韵、节韵

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Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? yesterday


魯白野·從彭亨到吉蘭丹

作夢也沒有想到,我這匹黑馬竟有一天會到這兩個荒野的國土奔馳。想到過去研讀史書,知道這兩個地方與中國的交通是那麼的密切,我是感覺到無限高興的。我們不應該認為讀史是一件不重要,甚至是落伍的事情。如果中馬兩大民族能夠重溫歷史上深摯友誼,我們將會感覺到民間的隔閡是更容易消除的而更容易親熱起來了。

該寶貴的一段友誼

是的,像在隋唐時代,我們便知道丹丹國(就是吉蘭丹)的存在。宋朝的海外交通,比唐朝更為發達。我們幸得有一位愛寫作的市舶官趙汝適,他在諸蕃誌一書上告訴我們:吉蘭丹與彭亨曾經是三佛國的屬國,以後又為滿者伯夷國所征服。元朝汪大淵在1330年出國,也曾盛稱彭亨、吉蘭丹和丁家盧的好處,可見吉彭兩地自古以來都是很發達(也許是很富有)的商埠。

彭亨蘇丹在明洪十一年、永樂九年(1411)、十二年、十四年都曾向中國朝貢。據明史記載:“在洪武十一年(就是1378年),彭亨王麻哈剌耶達如以金葉書函,遣使攜往中原,並以外奴與該國的出產做朝貢禮物。”在永樂十年,天朝御使鄭和曾至彭亨宣揚國威;他的親信費信,也曾在1436年(正統元年)到彭亨宣揚。吉蘭丹雖僅在永樂九年進貢一次,以後都是為了政治局勢的不安定才中斷了。可是,這並沒有終止了馬來民族對中華民族的親善的表示。我們實在應該寶貴這一段友好的歷史。

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? yesterday

好動的彭亨河

在馬來亞版圖最廣闊的國家就是彭亨,一共有一萬四千平方里的土地,但卻是最落後的,人口也是最稀薄。數千年來,彭亨的人民都是被縛在河邊及沿海一帶,很少到內地去開荒。因此,淺淺的彭亨河成為最重要的交通線了。在湮遠的年代,也許是在耶穌誕生的時候,彭亨是世界馳名的黃金出產地。而彭亨河卻是流向西海岸的麻坡去。運載黃金的小舟,就是駛到麻坡去兜賣的。不料以後竟像一條蛟龍掉轉過頭來,分成幾條支流分別流向郎平(小坤甸)、關丹、興樓及比巴爾等地去。在今天,曾經是十五尺至二十尺深的彭亨河已逐漸轉淺了。有些地方甚至是四五尺深。而且,好動的彭亨河總是喜歡轉移方向,這是馬來人最害怕的,因為這條蛟龍一發起狂來,便會造成破壞力最大的水災。

彭亨這個字,原來是吉蔑語,意思就是“錫”。我們在馬來亞進行的考古工作及歷史寫作實在是嫌做得太少。譬如彭亨就是史前遺物最豐富的地方,可是卻沒有人去注意發掘它、研究它。在天比嶺河流域,曾有許多青銅時代的文化古物的出土,其中有類似我國漢朝鑄造的銅鼓,可惜以後就沒有再發掘了。在雙溪林奔,有的是史前開發的錫礦的遺跡。在馬六甲王朝未建國以前,彭亨的人民是以種稻、發掘黃金與錫礦為主要職業的。彭亨的好男兒,也是最饒勇的鬥士,他們曾經攻打國馬來亞西岸的幾個國家,像森美蘭、馬六甲等。也曾經為他們服務,共禦外侮。彭亨曾一度屈服於暹羅,以後在十五世紀和馬六甲結合,擺脫了暹羅的勢力。由甲王穆薩法之次子莫哈默為王,始為純粹是馬來人的國家。

讀者也許會像我一樣會有這樣的感覺,我們對彭亨的一些地名,像文冬、淡馬魯、明德甲、而連突、加樓、金馬揚及白鬚港等,是多麼熟稔而親切啊!可是,到了這些在地圖上不過是渺小的線與點的山芭地方,星洲人的心未免會感到空虛和失望了。就是首邑的關丹及瓜拉立卑士嗎?在一個現代人的心目中,是不會造成深刻印象的,無論是在三條街的文冬市,還是每年出產黃金一萬安士以上的勞勿,我只感覺到這裡是淡夏的國度,不容易看見唱一支春天的歌的燕子。

我變成了啞巴

到了吉蘭丹,我便成為了啞巴,這是因為保守的吉蘭丹人的語言,不但存了許多古馬來文,也混雜了許多暹文。在這個充滿了碩壯的水牛、豐富的稻田及還是古色古香的影子戲的故鄉的地方,人們是驕傲而彬彬有禮的,歡樂又是容易衝動的。他們對藝術有很深切的熱愛,因此,他們把古印尼民族的基本藝術都保留下來了,像影子戲、紡織紗籠、煉劍等。在這裡時間似乎是不會前進的,在吉蘭丹的四十萬以上人口,竟有九十二巴仙是馬來人,他們的身材都很高大健康,個性倔強及勤勞,這是南馬的馬來民族所比不上的。

吉蘭丹的意思是“閃電之國”,它的海岸時常要為強有力的南中國海的波浪所撞擊,造成了它的孤立地位。它是缺乏可以再開墾的土地了,因此不能誘惑更多的外僑移植到此。目前雖已有了一千方里的稻田,但是,這等于可以耕種的土地面積,這實在沒有再可發展的餘地了。一個吉蘭丹人是一個多麼富有詩意而不理會時間的可貴的人,一位漁人會這麼說:“我作水手的時間,大概是相等於用壞了兩張漁網的光景。”鬥牛、鬥羊與鬥雞,一度盛行在吉蘭丹的鄉村中,但終於在1939年被禁止了。這是因為此三者原來是民間娛樂,卻為賭徒操縱成為賭博的工具了。

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on Thursday

(續上)彭亨這個字,原來是吉蔑語,意思就是“錫”。我們在馬來亞進行的考古工作及歷史寫作實在是嫌做得太少。譬如彭亨就是史前遺物最豐富的地方,可是卻沒有人去注意發掘它、研究它。在天比嶺河流域,曾有許多青銅時代的文化古物的出土,其中有類似我國漢朝鑄造的銅鼓,可惜以後就沒有再發掘了。在雙溪林奔,有的是史前開發的錫礦的遺跡。在馬六甲王朝未建國以前,彭亨的人民是以種稻、發掘黃金與錫礦為主要職業的。彭亨的好男兒,也是最饒勇的鬥士,他們曾經攻打國馬來亞西岸的幾個國家,像森美蘭、馬六甲等。也曾經為他們服務,共禦外侮。彭亨曾一度屈服於暹羅,以後在十五世紀和馬六甲結合,擺脫了暹羅的勢力。由甲王穆薩法之次子莫哈默為王,始為純粹是馬來人的國家。

讀者也許會像我一樣會有這樣的感覺,我們對彭亨的一些地名,像文冬、淡馬魯、明德甲、而連突、加樓、金馬揚及白鬚港等,是多麼熟稔而親切啊!可是,到了這些在地圖上不過是渺小的線與點的山芭地方,星洲人的心未免會感到空虛和失望了。就是首邑的關丹及瓜拉立卑士嗎?在一個現代人的心目中,是不會造成深刻印象的,無論是在三條街的文冬市,還是每年出產黃金一萬安士以上的勞勿,我只感覺到這裡是淡夏的國度,不容易看見唱一支春天的歌的燕子。

我變成了啞巴

到了吉蘭丹,我便成為了啞巴,這是因為保守的吉蘭丹人的語言,不但存了許多古馬來文,也混雜了許多暹文。在這個充滿了碩壯的水牛、豐富的稻田及還是古色古香的影子戲的故鄉的地方,人們是驕傲而彬彬有禮的,歡樂又是容易衝動的。他們對藝術有很深切的熱愛,因此,他們把古印尼民族的基本藝術都保留下來了,像影子戲、紡織紗籠、煉劍等。在這裡時間似乎是不會前進的,在吉蘭丹的四十萬以上人口,竟有九十二巴仙是馬來人,他們的身材都很高大健康,個性倔強及勤勞,這是南馬的馬來民族所比不上的。


吉蘭丹的意思是“閃電之國”,它的海岸時常要為強有力的南中國海的波浪所撞擊,造成了它的孤立地位。它是缺乏可以再開墾的土地了,因此不能誘惑更多的外僑移植到此。目前雖已有了一千方里的稻田,但是,這等于可以耕種的土地面積,這實在沒有再可發展的餘地了。一個吉蘭丹人是一個多麼富有詩意而不理會時間的可貴的人,一位漁人會這麼說:“我作水手的時間,大概是相等於用壞了兩張漁網的光景。”鬥牛、鬥羊與鬥雞,一度盛行在吉蘭丹的鄉村中,但終於在1939年被禁止了。這是因為此三者原來是民間娛樂,卻為賭徒操縱成為賭博的工具了。(下續)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on Tuesday

馬來婦女享有最大自由的,就是吉蘭丹的婦女,他們和男人一同站在生產戰線上鬥爭。她們們不但能耕能織,也能夠把一間商店或或是一座小小的雜貨攤好好地管理經營,她們在市場上售賣從農村運來的土產、生果、蛋、蔬菜及家禽。她們既在經濟上能夠獨立自主,在社會上當然也取得了平等的地位。吉蘭丹自製紗籠是比較爪哇的出品更好、更上乘,因此,它的紗籠業每年產量也能超過二百萬元的價值了。此地的手工業也很發達,除了製造吉利斯劍供人珍玩,也有許多銀制的首飾、茶壺、叉匙等用具的製造。吉蘭丹蓆在北馬的銷路,已壓倒了馬辰蓆,正如吉蘭丹紗籠,因為能夠勇敢地排擠了爪哇傳統,取消了以沉悶的棕色為主,而取代鮮豔的彩虹顏色,如晴空的純藍、森林的深綠、火熱的紅色、活潑的橙色。能夠在商品上多多運用一點藝術的滲透是好的,結果保守的爪哇紗籠也許會被淘汰掉。

吉蘭丹人對商業的經營很有把握。此地的婦女,不但能夠自立,且也長得清秀美麗,穿起了本邦出產的紗籠,就像蝴蝶夫人一樣可愛。此地工業除了原來的老傳統,也正在向一個新的方向萌芽。馬來人的民族資本已經開設了火柴廠、印刷業以及長途汽車運輸業。吉蘭丹的根基雖然是長在經歷了二千年歷史的土地上,它卻沒有拒絕進步。有遠見的領袖不是選拔了能幹有為的青年到外國去學習,要使本邦在經濟及政治上都能大踏步前進。

漁業在此地的國民經濟也佔了相當重要的地位。可是,一到年尾,正是封港時候,南中國海的波浪更是險惡萬分,捕魚人兒的船隻只能躲在出船的的港口。不過這裡的三萬名漁人是不會受到影響的。他們仍可以到到天上插秧,或是看管他們的椰子園,或是作銀匠,或是去掘金。

二百五十年前曾經以香港為根據地而在華南一帶活動的大海盜張保仔,以後因為失敗了,便逃到布萊隱居。他的隨從都跟暹婦擊殺該婦女通婚。布萊本來是中國人最先到此建立的“金山”。布萊產金不多,但也有一段很悠久的歷史。而1800年張保仔的後裔,還因為爭奪金礦而參加了馬來王室的內訌,至招來了殺身之禍。最近六十年來,布萊的金已經掘盡了,變成了一個農村。但也許是1800年的金礦慘劇印象深刻,華人竟裹足不前,沒有再踴躍地移到布萊居住。

自從日寇南進,彭亨與吉蘭丹的交通線多被破壞。“馬來亞物質文明的發展,全靠交通”,如果我們不能夠很容易地跑到內地去,此兩地的發展是談不到深入及廣泛的。我們希望在不久之將來,我們能夠駛車到神秘的大漢山上,看看蘇羅門王的寶藏,是否在此明晶晶的山頂上,或是張保仔的價值連城的贓物,是否埋在靠近臥莫生的深林內。(魯白野,從彭亨到吉蘭丹,見《馬來散記》,1955年9月二版,新加坡世界書局,頁124至129)

Related:

Kelantan 吉蘭丹
國内遊
韵文化:鄉韻

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 7, 2024 at 9:45am


Senses of a Place

It had come to me not in a sudden epiphany but with a gradual sureness, a sense of meaning like a sense of place. When you give yourself to places, they give you yourself back; the more one comes to know them, the more one seeds them with the invisible crop of memories and associations that will be waiting for you when you come back, while new places offer up new thoughts, new possibilities. Exploring the world is one of the best ways of exploring the mind, and walking travels both terrains. (Rebecca Solnit)

All Americans need a sense of place. That's what makes our physical surroundings worth caring about. (Ed McMahon)

OK, well maybe I have to get back to Judaism. In the sense that if I look at me and my forebears forever stretching back to I don't know, whenever there's no sense of place and therefore no sense of nationality. (Janet Suzman)

All great hotels should have stellar personalized service, a unique design that gives guests a sense of place, an excellent on-site restaurant, and other fantastic amenities. Obviously location is a key factor as well. (Ivanka Trump)

Lowell is my home. It is where I drew my first breath. It is where I will always derive a sense of place and a sense of belonging.(Paul Tsongas

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 3, 2024 at 1:03am
Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 29, 2024 at 4:13pm

Throughout history, trade routes have been vital pathways for merchants conducting business. These routes weren't just limited to land; traders also navigated rivers and inland regions to reach their destinations. Using these trade routes not only saved time and distance but also provided a safer alternative to dealing with pirate threats. Additionally, traders didn't have to wait for months due to changing monsoon winds.

However, the significance of these trade routes diminished when the British government constructed a railway in 1931, connecting Bahau to Kuala Lipis and later extending to the east coast areas of the Malay Peninsula. This development made it challenging for researchers to study the surrounding areas thoroughly, especially with the increasing construction of housing developments.

The presence of numerous graves along these trade routes serves as a testament to the bustling trade and commerce that once thrived in these regions. It's astonishing to think that the rivers which were once vital waterways for trade are now difficult to envision as such, mainly due to shallow depths caused by modern development that often disregards the area's historical significance.

Map 7 illustrates the current land plots intersected by the Walau trade route. Despite its ancient origins, the trade route remains a subject of interest for scholars, with notable figures like d'Eredia, I'Tsing, and Paul Wheatley documenting its importance in various records and books.

(Rewrite from: Preethevan Ramu, Zuliskandar Ramli, Shamsuddin Ahmad, Mohamad Nazim Abdul Gaman, Asrul Effendi Kamaruzzaman & Muhammad Zaki Razani, LALUAN PENARIKAN, JEMPOL, NEGERI SEMBILAN BERDASARKAN SUMBER BERTULIS (WRITTEN SOURCES ON PENARIKAN ROUTE, JEMPOL, NEGERI SEMBILAN) Jurnal Arkeologi Malaysia,April 2020, Vol. 33, No.1, hlm. 27-40, ISSN 0128-0732 e-ISSN 2590-4302,Diterbitkan oleh Ikatan Ahli Arkeologi Malaysia)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 29, 2024 at 11:09am


Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve

Malaysia Ecological Characteristics

The freshwater lake, together with the drainage basin, the gazzetted Tasik Chini State Park including the 641 m Bukit Chini showed habitats that are endemic only to Tasik Chini which represent habitat only found in this area.

Other species characteristic of the extreme lowlands may also be present and are of considerable conservation interest due to their diminishing low land habitats elsewhere within Peninsular Malaysia.

The natural freshwater lake included in the Reserve, has its own economical benefits. Of the two beautiful natural lakes in Peninsular Malaysia, Tasik Chini is the second largest natural lake which is located 100 km away from the state capital of Pahang called Kuantan. With the barraging of the only river, Sungai Chini, that drains the lake, Tasik Chini is always flooded even during the drier season to encourage ecotourism throughout the year.


Socio-Economic Characteristics

The government and local communities are integrally involvedin all resource planning and management initiativesin the region. Forest management occurs within the context of the most stringent government-sponsored guidelines in Malaysia, under the guidance of a joint government-local community and government management board; on going ecosystem health is the primary consideration in all development decisions.

For sustaining the natural lake as an ecotourism site it has to be managed sustainably. An initiative by one of the leading local university in Malaysia, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Tasik Chini Research Centre was formed to overseer research and Integrated Water Research Management (IWRM) programmers in Tasik Chini.

The researches are based on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, management, pollution, services, ecotourism, ecohydrology and community of the Orang Asli living in the area. Such research opportunities are attracting scientists and students from around the world to this area.

(https://en.unesco.org)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 17, 2024 at 11:46am


Agong hopes traditional elements of Pekan will be preserved despite development

PEKAN, Oct 22 — Yang di-Pertuan Agong Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah has expressed hope that the traditional elements of the Pekan Royal Town will be preserved and upheld despite going through the process of modernisation.

His Majesty said he had been informed about the Pekan Sentral development, which will include a new market, bus terminal, and business centre, as well as the upgrading of the old Pekan town to beautify its surroundings.

“The emergence of modern buildings and architecture should not justify the extinction of the value of art and local cultural heritage.

“More sustainable development combined with efforts to ensure environmental sustainability, the preservation of traditional elements and the local architectural heritage, in my opinion, will make Pekan a superior city and capable of being recognised as one of the country’s main destinations,” he said.
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Al-Sultan Abdullah said this during the proclamation ceremony of the Municipal Council of the Royal Town of Pekan, here yesterday.
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Raja Permaisuri Agong Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah and their children, including the Regent of Pahang Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah were also in attendance.

Also present were Local Government Development Minister Nga Kor Ming and the administrative line of the Pahang government led by Menteri Besar Datuk Seri Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail.
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Al-Sultan Abdullah said the initiative of the Ministry of Local Government Development regarding the Guidelines for Planning and Development (GPP) of the Royal Town will be presented at the next meeting of the Conference of Rulers, adding that he was informed an allocation of RM90 million has been approved.

Al-Sultan Abdullah said the Pekan Town Council was established in 1924 and was replaced by the Pekan Town Board on Nov 1, 1968, which was later upgraded to the Pekan District Council on July 1, 1988.

The Pekan District Council was gazetted as the Pekan Municipal Council on July 30, which personally pleased Al-Sultan Abdullah as it is His Majesty’s birthdate.

“This town, which is full of nostalgia, and its people will always have a place in our hearts. Let us pray that the Royal Town will continue to develop and forge a name as a superior municipality and its people will always be protected by Allah S.W.T,” he said. — (Sunday, 22 Oct 2023 Bernama)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on January 12, 2024 at 4:41pm


ONG HAN SEAN: Kuantan’s new international airport to open in 2026

THE new Kuantan International Airport, which will be part of the Pahang Aerospace City, is expected to be operational in 2026.

Pahang Mentri Besar Datuk Seri Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail said the high-impact RM2bil development project in Gebeng would replace the existing Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Airport and support the Third National Physical Plan as a national transit development city (sea, air and land) in an integrated manner.

“This project was planned at the end of 2019 and received the approval of the 39th National Physical Planning Council chaired by the Prime Minister last Oct 21.

“The implementation of this project also takes into account other economic hub factors such as its location in the Gebeng Industrial Area, being close to the Kuantan Port (294 Nautical Miles from Singaport Port,by road 305 KM)and the East Coast Rail Link (iconada's note: the nearest station is Paya Besar, Gembang, which is 62 km away from Pekan) project, as well as being the main gateway to the east coast states,” he said in a statement.

Wan Rosdy had accompanied Pahang Regent Tengku Mahkota Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah Ibni Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah in witnessing the signing of two memorandum of understanding (MOU) to build the airport and development of the Aerospace City.

The Kuantan International Airport MOU was signed by Pahang Corporation Sdn Bhd chief executive officer Datuk Mohd Khusaini Harumaini, Gading Group Bhd executive chairman Datuk Seri Johari Harun representing the main developer and AVIC International head of delegation to Malaysia Zhuo Yue, representing the strategic partner.

For the mixed development of Aerospace City, the MOU was signed by Johari for the main developer and Syabas Seribumi Sdn Bhd director Mohamad Nor Hamid, for the strategic partner.

Wan Rosdy said the project was expected to be a catalyst for economic growth in Pahang involving a gross development value of RM7.5bil per year, equivalent to RM150bil over 20 years.

“The state government also aims to capture at least 1% of the Asia-Pacific Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) market estimated at RM15tril.

“The project component involves 70% for MRO and the remaining 30% is for the operation of the airport itself,” he said.

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