再搖一搖,
聽聽看有沒有果實鬆落的聲音。
有的話代表這顆榴槤已經成熟、
正值可以剖開來吃的時候。

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Comment by iki kia kiak on July 24, 2021 at 9:51pm


王潤華·榴槤

〈形狀〉

我的父親是熱帶雨林的酋長

他高達四十公尺

生下我後,看我結實魁梧

就給我披上堅硬多刺的盔甲

我武者的風度

我尖銳的志氣

常常使想念我的少女恐懼

常常使親近我的男人受傷


〈香味〉


我是果園世襲的貴族

小時候,不能玩捉迷藏

加冕稱帝之後

更不能微服潛行,隨處在民間遊戲

不管我藏在香蕉叢裡

或躲在旅店的密室中

我的子民

都能從空氣中探測到我的行蹤

因為我的威望和恩澤

如陽光一般,普照著大千世界


〈上市〉


為了萬世流芳

每年有兩個季節

我巡幸全國的疆土

禦駕所過,都架起牌樓

我的子民蹲在街邊或路旁向我禮拜

真是舉國歡騰

有些甘榜的村民

為了謁見君主

甚至當掉帽子和沙籠

而異鄉人往往掩鼻潛逃

我的威嚴使他們頭暈或嘔吐

所以我一直不駕臨大旅店的餐廳

使到他們在假期感到噁心

Comment by iki kia kiak on July 21, 2021 at 10:52pm

〈個性〉

異鄉人,你知道嗎?

只要你恩愛地吻我一次

你一定會奉我為君

而且拋棄家園

長久定居在我的國土

拒絕我的恩澤

必然做不成淘金的夢

必然嗅到世紀末的腐臭

貪心的人,你知道嗎?

一切的成果

千萬不要貪婪的爬上樹去採擷

當它熟透了,自然會掉落

為了不傷害你

只在子、午、卯、酉

眾人在家休息的時辰掉落


〈紋路〉

我的脾氣雖然燥熱

卻不是冷漠驕傲的暴君

我的國法已規定

凡讀通我盔甲上的文章

我才張開小口

接受士大夫的朝拜


(王潤華《橡膠樹》,新加坡:泛亞文化事業公司,1980年,頁23-27。)

Comment by iki kia kiak on June 26, 2021 at 8:18pm


陳明發《榴槤·婆羅洲·華萊士》

2013年,是紀念華萊士逝世一百週年的特別年份。全球熱愛婆羅洲大自然的學人與民眾,出席了由砂拉越大學、砂拉越森林機構與砂拉越博物館在十一月七至八日,假古晉舉行的華萊士國際大會。並重走華萊士在1854年11月至1856年元月在砂拉越、沙巴大森林裡走過的探險之旅。(見婆羅洲郵報

1855年,也就是在白人拉惹詹姆斯·布魯克的邀請下,探索砂拉越洪荒莽野後一年,正在山都望政府渡假村做客的華萊士,花了三個晚上寫了一篇論文,提出聞名後世的“砂拉越定律”(Sarawak Law)。

此定律說明了: 每一個物種的存在,在時間上與空間上,與密切關聯的物種都是一致的(Every species has come into existence coincident both in space and time with closely allied species)

                  (華萊士著作《馬來群島》書中插圖,他所走過的研究探險版圖)

這個研究結論很有趣,和進化論學者達爾文在《物種起源》中所宣告的“物競天擇”、“弱肉強食”原理,基本上是背道而馳的。

華萊士後來的著作都反復說明,物種之間的互相競爭,其實最終會造成大多數物種彼此間的相互合作;整個地球因而是一個和諧的統一體。

華萊士曾在1848-1852年間在巴西阿瑪遜河流域做過研究。1854年到新加坡,緊接著到砂拉越,1856年到蘇拉威西群島、馬來亞半島、東帝汶一帶做研究。

為時八年,路遙二萬三千公里,跋涉過漫無人煙、命運難測的無數蠻荒曠野,採集過十二萬五千個鳥類、甲蟲與動物的樣本,很有趣的是,最令華萊士的兩種植物,居然是婆羅洲森林的竹子與山榴槤

華萊士生前發表過800多篇學術報告/文章以及22部著作,其中最廣泛流傳、翻譯,至今仍然常青的一部書,就是根據他在東南亞探險所寫成的《馬來群島》(The Malay Archipelago,1869)。


2013年,華萊士逝世百年;沙巴有一位年輕企業家劉一章,用他特別的方式來紀念這位偉大的自然學家與生物地理學家,創造了系列以ARW(華萊士名字簡寫)榴蓮王產品,包括榴槤冰沙 、炸榴槤與榴槤酥。(原載 August 20, 2014愛墾網)

Comment by iki kia kiak on June 6, 2021 at 11:03am


陳明發:心智结合上技術

我們在心智上所認知、理解或領悟的事物,技術能力將其在實際行為上發揮出來。它牽涉到一系列的操作活動,例如,一位劇場售票員的工作技能包括劃位、打印入場券、算錢、收錢與找錢。而一位石雕師所需要的技術能力,就複雜得多;從找尋與鑒定石材,到動手粗雕輪廓、精刻細部、打磨、修補等等,各需不同訣竅與過程。(收藏自14.12.2006馬來西亞《南洋商報》經濟版專欄)

陳明發院士 《文創技能系列 29》:選榴槤的儀式

愛懇榴槤專頁

                                                             (Feature Photo:Durian by Sanjan Grero

Comment by iki kia kiak on May 7, 2021 at 10:41pm

潘受·榴槤


犯瘴沖炎角長雄,真成王者果林中。

何妨魏武形骸陋,差與桓溫氣味同。

滄海爭誇餐巨棗,美人笑擘損春蔥。

紛紛典盡都縵日,抵死留連尚諱窮。

《潘受詩集》

Comment by iki kia kiak on May 7, 2021 at 8:48pm

潘潔夫·蕭山啖榴槤

驅車越嶺過蕭山,一縷香風撲鼻間,

乍惹口垂涎幾尺,那慳囊里幣三鍰,

却憐荔子難爭美,話到留連頓展顏,

南國果王尊號當,餘芬猶帶夕陽還。

潘潔夫《餐英樓詩稿》

Comment by iki kia kiak on May 7, 2021 at 12:06pm


管震民·
讀陳亞士《咏榴蓮》詩有感,叠成二韻以和


榴槤音韻叶留連,多少忘家滯海天。

銅臭鑽心雜我擾,金光耀目問誰憐?

薰蕕易地情仍異,橘柚踰江味亦遷。

獨慕東平甘守拙,灌園日日祝瓜緜。

咏物詩成擬惠連,果中佳品艷南天。

猙獰面目人都畏,柔軟心腸我亦憐。

下墜不虞和露重,髙懸時見逐風遷。

凝脂如乳還如蜜,更愛香濃肉似緜。


管震民《綠天廬詩文集》

Comment by iki kia kiak on March 28, 2021 at 4:55pm


Alfred Russel Wallace as a geographer

                                                                                       Map shows the Wallace Line.


THE old saying, ‘History is about chaps and geography is about maps’, is hardly true,

for when Wallace landed in Borneo in his quest to explore the natural history of the Malay Archipelago, there was hardly an accurate map of Borneo to be found anywhere in the world.

My first interest in Geography stemmed from my inheritance of my grandmother’s geography school textbooks that she used in the 1890s as a primary school teacher. These books, now 155 years old, saw Geography merely as a list of places with estimated populations and a lengthy but boring catalogue of the commodities that each country produced. Little was written about the landscapes, climate, vegetation and peoples of each country.


Wallace’s revelations

On June 8, 1863, Wallace presented his paper entitled ‘On the Physical Geography of the Malay Archipelago’ to a learned audience at the Royal Geographical Society in London. Remember that, by then, Wallace had already explored the Amazon Basin and later Sarawak and Indonesia, no doubt utilising the knowledge of landscapes from his earlier days as a land and estates surveyor. This was the year after he returned to England from his Malay Archipelago exploratory adventures and six years before his famous book was published.

In his opening speech, he set out to convince the assembled throng that, “No (other) part of the world can offer a greater number of our facts for our contemplation, or furnish us with more extensive and varied materials in almost every department of human knowledge” than the Malay Archipelago.

Today, 154 years later, this still rings true. Wallace maintained that this archipelago was truly continental in its extent and should be recognised as a ‘sixth continent’. To give an idea of the size of Borneo island to those who had never viewed it, he pointed out that it “would contain the whole of Great Britain and Ireland”.

Comment by iki kia kiak on March 28, 2021 at 4:55pm


Geological knowledge

He linked volcanic activity to earthquake frequency highlighting “a vast fiery girdle some 5,000 miles in length with 50 or so continually active volcanoes with hundreds more in a dormant

state”. He mentioned examples of crater lakes and the remains of the explosive volcanic vents in Java. “The great eruption of Toruboro, in Sumbawa, saw the loss of 12,000 lives and the ashes darkened the air, and fell thick upon the earth and sea for 300 miles around”.

Note that this was written 10 years before the great eruption of Krakatoa, east of Java, in 1873, which could be heard in northern Australia. It created a tsunami, and emitted so much volcanic gases into the upper atmosphere that the world’s climates were upset for several years. Wallace detailed volcanic activity on Java mentioning that this island “contains more volcanoes, active and extinct than any other known district of equal extent”.

His geological knowledge came to the fore as he distinguished between active, dormant and extinct volcanoes, and the reasons for the different shapes of volcanic cones. Wallace acknowledged the fact that there was no evidence of volcanic action for “the great mass of Borneo” but he had little or no knowledge of the earthquake activity, which rattled settlements even then in the Ranau and Kundasang areas of Mount Kinabalu.

He quoted evidence of land upheaval and depression with particular reference to “upraised coral-rock, exactly corresponding to that now forming in the adjacent seas”, especially on the island of Amboyna. His interest in mining is best illustrated in his indirect mention of the deposits at Labuan’s coalfield, which he determined as “of tertiary age” and was no doubt inherited from his early days in surveying the route of the planned railway line to transport coal from the mines in the Welsh valleys to Neath in South Wales.

Comment by iki kia kiak on March 28, 2021 at 4:53pm

Climatologist and biogeographer

Relating vegetation types to monsoonal rain patterns, Wallace focussed, in this lecture, mostly on tropical rainforest and kerangas areas. In particular, he mentioned “the larger half of Borneo as having a dry season from April to November, with the South East monsoon”. Indirectly he inferred the influence of the ‘Coriolis effect’ in deflecting winds to the right in the northern hemisphere by simply stating “the same wind (South East Trade) bends round Borneo, becoming the South West monsoon into the China Sea and bringing the rainy season to Northern Borneo”.

Wallace’s full explanation, based upon his natural history observations, revealed what is now called ‘The Wallace Line’, delineating those Indo- Malayan species of plants and animals from the Austra-Malayan varieties. This, he dramatically illustrated in a one paragraph summary,

“Nowhere does the ancient doctrine that the peculiar animal and vegetable productions of the various countries of the globe are directly dependent on the physical conditions of those countries

(such as climate, soil, elevation etc.,) meet with more direct and palpable contradiction. Borneo and New Guinea, as physically alike as two countries can be, are zoologically wide as the Poles are asunder; while Australia …. produces the quadrupeds and birds which are mostly allied to those … that are found in the tropical rainforests of New Guinea.”

He illustrated these differences by referring to the vegetation and animals of South America and Africa, which may have triggered Alfred Wegener’s theory, some 52 years later in 1911, of Continental Drift. He emphasised that it was “preceding geological change” that produced the patterns he had observed in the Malay Archipelago.

Early conservationist

Whilst a collector of various insect, animal and bird species, during his Malay Archipelago investigations, to despatch to British and European natural history museums, he concluded in his speech – perhaps in self-justification – an amazing foresighted final statement.

It reads thus, “Future ages will certainly look back upon us as people so immersed in the pursuit of wealth to be blind to higher considerations. They will consider us with having culpably allowed the destruction of some of those records of Creation which we had on our planet to preserve; and while professing to regard every living thing as the direct handiwork and best evidence

of a Creator, yet, with a strange inconsistency, seeing many of them perish irrecoverably from the face of the earth, uncared for and unknown.”

How true these wise words from the 19th century are in our 21st century.

Wallace cried out for preservation and conservation to maintain the biodiversity of our planet and his thoughts are replicated by conservationists today.

He was, indeed, a superb physical geographer explaining, in understandable terms, his vast knowledge of geology, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, pedology and biogeography with appropriate turns of phrase. Alfred Wallace was, without doubt, a scientist well before his time when, later other scientists developed his ideas yet further.

Certainly, as a physical geographer, he has given me much thought as to how I view what has subsequently happened around our world. His down to earth style of writing, perhaps embellished by his Victorian vocabulary, still inspires further scientific and geographical investigations and enquiry today.

(JULY 9, 2017, SUNDAY https://www.theborneopost.com

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, iconada.tv supports creators since July, 2009.

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