陳芷凡·說故事的人:《老鷹,再見》的文化詩學與文化翻譯(1)

摘要:對原住民族群而言,口傳不但是一種敘述樣態,更是文化傳承的具體實踐。從口述到書寫,媒介與時空的移轉,台灣原住民作家行文之際,在內容以及敘事模式上,既援引口傳文化的豐富資源,一方面也轉化了故事的內在情境,形成言說與書寫共構、記憶與現實共舞、傳統與再生並行的文化詩學,與懷鄉思維密切相關。然而,原本在部落中說故事的情境,在書寫文本中有所轉化,當聽故事的對象擴及其他族群,說故事的意圖幾經轉折,口傳紀錄於是附加了文化翻譯的思考,產生文化流動的特質與痕跡。本文以排灣族女性作家達德拉凡‧伊苞《老鷹, 再見》為例,觀察文本中口述傳統的再現,如何形構排灣族多層次的文化詩學, 並開啟了文化翻譯的相關討論。而此視角,除了立基於原住民文學美學的關懷, 亦是對「傳統」的界定與流變作一番思考。


The Storyteller: The Poetic and Cultural Translation of Goodbye, Eagle


Abstract:The paper focuses on Goodbye, Eagle by Ebau, an aboriginal female writer in Taiwan. She describes her nostalgia in a special way. Ebau chooses to “leave” her home to search what’s “home”. The choice is different from Taiwan’s aboriginal writers who wrote about returning home for two decades from 1980 to 2000. Unlike men’s writing, Taiwan Aboriginal women express their nostalgia by bringing up issues related to gender, marriage, and identity. They choose different images for nostalgia and memory. How could nostalgia be a metaphor in their writing? How do they connect nostalgia with race, gender, and family?

Ebau represents both the landscape in Tibet and memorial scenery in her tribe. The former is the route to recall her home. In her writing, the folklore as well as animatism is the main motif. Furthermore, from this novel we could understand the culture of Pai Wan, which includes traditional customs, taboo, myths, and tales. Goodbye, Eagle provides lots of Pai Wan aboriginal information for its readers. In the context, the meaning of cultural translation is not only on the reader’s part in his/her relationship with the culture of the “Other” but also on the aboriginal writer’s in her dealing with the Tibetan culture.

In Ebau’s home, eagles always fly in the sky, and hence become an important metaphor signifying “home” in this story. In my reading of Goodbye, Eagle, the true meaning of the bidding gesture could be “see the eagle again”.


我會來西藏,最大的因素是跟神話有關。我在神話中長大,我一直相信著, 神話是人類最原始的智慧。伊苞《老鷹,再見》多數民族以神話、傳說、歌謠、祭詞來解釋本身的起源,說明該民族生命傳承之意義。這些口述文本的形成與流傳,既是生活經驗的投射,背後亦隱含著意義重大的思維模式,透過口說,神話思維和語言思維在各個層次交錯。神話以「隱喻」的方式和語言理智連結,人們可能在語言結構或者是神話的想像裡,認知到隱喻的真正涵義。Paul Ricoeur 強調,神話表達著一種期望,一個先民想要達到的「生命目的」;是宗教想像產生的象徵故事而不是實際歷史,關聯著一個「意義」重大的原始行為或生活模式。針對神話,Cassirer 補充時空傳播的因素,他表示生活環境如果發生變化,將人帶入新的人與環境的實際關係,語言中所遺傳下的概念便不復保存其原始「意義」。

Paul Ricoeur 與 Cassirer 的論述中,提到了兩個重點,前者說明神話思維與日常生活的聯結,而後者則強調神話在時空語境下的轉換,「原本」意義因為時空差異而轉變,並同時存在著重新詮釋的空間。這番提醒,使得筆者關注神話、時空脈絡、語文表達形式三者的關聯。對無文字傳統的族群而言,敘事、說故事的文化意義十分重大,由長輩口傳給下一代的神話、傳說或是生活經驗,陳國鈞(1974)認為此行為「維繫其傳統性的生活習俗、社會秩序、宗教信仰、道德規範以及民族歷史等。」當部落老人家口述傳統時,神話與語言思維有所交錯,透過講述者,神話在一次次的口說中增添時空意義。該傳統除了口述表現外,肢體動作或是音樂亦為表達重點,為了讓聽眾感興趣、印象深刻,講述的人在語調、動作、甚至是故事的鋪陳,都採取了特殊安排,陳述過程中運用誇張、對比、重覆、隱喻、鉅細靡遺等種種方式,賦予口述內容的「表演」特質。

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