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Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on June 5, 2024 at 3:57pm

The term "shahbandar"

Reference: Related to the present title-holder’s family history of safeguarding the South sea

The term "shahbandar" in the Malay world refers to a crucial historical office and role within maritime and trade communities. The word itself is derived from Persian, where "shah" means "king" and "bandar" means "port," essentially translating to "harbor master" or "port chief."

Origins and Introduction 

The concept of the shahbandar was introduced to the Malay world during the time of extensive maritime trade in the Indian Ocean, particularly between the 9th and 15th centuries. This period saw significant interaction between Malay kingdoms and various traders from Arabia, Persia, India, and later China. As trade networks expanded, the need for a regulated and organized system to manage ports and facilitate commerce became evident.

Role and Responsibilities

In the Malay world, the shahbandar was appointed by the ruler (sultan or king) and held substantial authority over the port and its activities. Their primary responsibilities included:

  1. **Regulation of Trade**: Overseeing the entry and exit of ships, goods, and traders. They ensured that trade was conducted fairly and in accordance with the local laws.
  2. **Customs and Duties**: Collecting taxes and duties on goods traded within the port. This was a significant source of revenue for the kingdom.
  3. **Diplomatic Relations**: Acting as an intermediary between the local ruler and foreign traders, handling diplomatic relations, and ensuring that the interests of the state were protected.
  4. **Conflict Resolution**: Settling disputes among traders or between traders and locals, ensuring smooth and continuous trade operations.
  5. **Security and Order**: Maintaining security within the port area, protecting it from piracy, theft, and other threats.
Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on June 5, 2024 at 3:57pm

Importance in Trade Networks

The shahbandar played a pivotal role in making the Malay ports attractive and safe for foreign traders. Prominent ports in the Malay world, such as Melaka (Malacca), Aceh, and Johor, relied heavily on the efficiency and capabilities of their shahbandars. For instance, Melaka, during its height in the 15th century, was one of the most important trading hubs in Southeast Asia, and the shahbandar there was instrumental in managing its complex trade networks.

Influence and Legacy

The position of the shahbandar had a lasting impact on the administrative systems of ports in the Malay world. Their governance practices influenced local laws and regulations related to trade, some of which have carried over into modern port management systems. The legacy of the shahbandar highlights the importance of organized and efficient port administration in the historical development of Southeast Asia's maritime economy.

Decline and Transition

The role of the shahbandar began to decline with the advent of European colonial powers in the region, such as the Portuguese, Dutch, and British, from the 16th century onwards. These colonial powers introduced their own administrative systems and regulations, which often replaced the traditional roles of local officials like the shahbandar. However, the historical significance of the shahbandar remains a testament to the rich maritime heritage of the Malay world.

The "shahbandar" was a crucial official in the Malay world, particularly during the height of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th and 16th centuries. Derived from Persian, the term translates to "harbor master" or "port official." The shahbandar was responsible for overseeing port activities, managing trade, and ensuring the collection of customs duties. This role was essential in facilitating the region's vibrant maritime trade, attracting merchants from across Asia and beyond. The shahbandar also served as a mediator between the local rulers and foreign traders, ensuring smooth commercial operations and contributing to the economic prosperity of the Malay ports.

In Chinese, the term "shahbandar" is often translated as "沙班达" (shā bān dá). However, a more specific term that directly relates to the role and function of a shahbandar is "市舶司" (shì bó sī). The 市舶司 was an official in charge of maritime trade and foreign trade affairs, similar to the shahbandar's responsibilities in the Malay world. This term was used during various Chinese dynasties, particularly during the Song and Ming periods, to designate officials who oversaw trade in major port cities. (愛墾编註:亦称“港务官”.

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on May 30, 2024 at 5:27pm

喬治·桑塔亞納(George Santayana,1863-1952)箴言

人性千差萬別,千變萬化,光明與黑暗,善良與險惡,真實與虛假,無時無刻不在相互轉化。或許只有為數不多的幾個本質特征起著決定作用,因人而異的個性圍繞著世界隨意變化。因此,沒有什麽放之四海而皆準的宗教、科學、藝術或幸福的方式可以規定。

進步的關鍵遠不在於變化,而是依賴於持存。如果變化是絕對的,這時就不存在需要改進的生命,也不會確定可能進步的方向。


對於世界萬物的探討永遠沒有定論,甚至對於它們的根基的定義也不是確定的,每個人都可以自行決定它們應當是什麽樣的。越多的事物沒有固定的本質,可任意選擇,世上存在的這種自由就越多越安全,也越深入人心。


不管你現在多大年紀, 生活其實有無限可能! 選擇自己要過的生活,是人生最重要的事。 別忘了與最親愛的人, 分享每一個可以更幸福的機會, 讓每個都會或即將步入老年的人, 都能擁有最簡單的心靈滿足。 塔莎·杜朵 《塔莎奶奶的美好生活》


你所需要的完全是一種心境。我認為幸福是一種心境。這里所有的一切都讓我感到滿足,我的家,我的花園,我的各種動物,這里的天氣、佛蒙特這個州。
塔莎·杜朵 《塔莎的世界》

我讀故事的時候就像看電影,全是流動的畫面和各種各樣的色彩。書籍對我來說是十分真實的。我非常崇拜艾米莉·狄金森,她說:“沒有任何快艇像一本書,可以帶我們到遙遠的國度。” 塔莎·杜朵 《塔莎的世界》

後現代社會工作的反思

後現代思潮基於對西方現代化的反省,抗拒現代化所追求的整體性、確定性、普遍性、巨型理論及統一性等,轉而強調差異性、不確定性、多元性、局部性理論及動態性等相反的論點,也就是反理性獨斷,強調感官經驗,注重本土知識。

就本土文化而言,具體表現於鄉土教學、母語教學及多元文化教育等。本土化的倡導,不僅立基於本身文化的尊重與學習的必然性,且亦是跳脫出現代化整體性、確定性所造成的迷思,尋求並肯定自身與眾不同的差異(Yahoo 網站,2003)

在整個過程中,不是刻意強調或推展各種文化以凸顯本土化與多元化,這只是象徵性的改變,其最根本的是培養學生對於差異的尊重與感受力,思考方式的改變才是走出現代迷思的指標。(黃秀香,2003 ,後現代思潮對現代社會工作實務理論與處遇的影響及反思,台灣《社區發展季刊》104 期,321頁至341頁)

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on May 28, 2024 at 2:57pm

(波蘭)米沃什:禮 物

如此幸福的一天

霧一早就散了,我在花園里幹活

蜂鳥停在忍冬花上

這世上沒有一樣東西我想佔有

我知道沒有一個人值得我羨慕

任何我曾遭受的不幸,我都已忘記

想到故我今我同為一人並不使我難為情

在我身上沒有痛苦

直起腰來,我望見藍色的大海和帆影

西川 譯


愛墾評註

波蘭詩人米沃什(Czesław Miłosz)是1980年諾貝爾文學獎得主,讀了他這首詩,就覺得今天過得很實在。特別是這一句:

想到故我今我同為一人並不使我難為情

在我身上沒有痛苦

直起腰來,我望見藍色的大海和帆影

本網提倡「知本法」文創,在大敘事上「不忘初心」,顧全整體生態經營;在小敘事上,落實慢生活、慢創作,追求「返鄉」、詩性的居住。

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on May 11, 2024 at 4:41pm

大變局下的中國話語構建

當今世界正經歷百年未有之大變局,中國的發展機遇與挑戰並存。變局之下,要加快構建中國話語和中國敘事體系,用中國理論闡釋中國實踐,用中國實踐升華中國理論,打造融通中外的新概念、新范疇、新表述,更加充分、更加鮮明地展現中國故事及其背後的思想力量和精神力量。因此,如何創造具有中國特色的話語體系就是學界關注的話題。

在上一個百年中,上半葉發生了兩次世界大戰,給世界造成了巨大損失,也帶來了國際關係和秩序的大變局。特別是二戰後,發生了許多巨大的變化。一方面,國際力量對比、國際關係發生巨變,美國成為超級大國,西歐走向聯合,冷戰美蘇對抗,波及世界;另一方面,成立了聯合國體系,在安全、經濟領域開啟全球治理。這些變化對於世界的發展所帶來的影響是複雜的、綜合的、長期的。上個世紀最應該汲取的經驗是,大國爭奪必然引起對抗和戰爭,只有合作才可以帶來和平與繁榮。

冷戰結束,本來世界可以「分享和平紅利」,構建合作、和平、開放、發展的新秩序。但是,美國成為「一超」後,力圖在全世界推廣美國價值觀和美國主導的世界秩序,甚至不惜動用武力,引發了新的問題,讓世界產生許多新的分裂和對抗。剛剛進入新世紀,就發生了「9·11事件」,由此導致美國發動反恐戰爭,連帶在一些地區產生亂局。2008年,由美國「次貸危機」引發了世界性經濟危機,對全球化造成了巨大影響,使得世界經濟陷入不穩定和不確定的局面。正在發生的俄烏沖突,亦打亂了歐洲關係和秩序的發展進程,可能帶來更大的變局。

本世紀最大的挑戰,也是我們共同的任務是:防止戰爭,特別是大戰爭,保證和平與發展。[要考慮的是]如何管理力量對比發生的巨大變化。力量對比變化主要體現在兩個方面:一是發展中國家與發達國家力量對比之變,發展中國家群體崛起,這個變化影響深刻;二是大國綜合力量對比變化,美國地位下降,中國地位提升,還有其他非西方大國,這個變化影響也很大。力量對比變化是一個現實,也是一個大趨勢,影響到大格局、大關係,涉及諸多方面,必然引發矛盾沖突,關鍵是如何把握向穩的方向,而不是向沖突的方向發展。

如何推動發展范式轉變。傳統工業化的范式走到今天,已經走不下去了,必須改變,為什麼?盡管傳統工業化帶來經濟大發展,但是,也導致生態環境惡化,地球負能量運轉,因此,現在深刻感覺到不變不行,要基於新發展理念改變。

再次,如何應對氣候變化帶來的綜合影響。氣候之變的最根本影響是地球生態,不僅對人類,而且對整個生態鏈產生影響。阻止氣候變暖,涉及人類生存環境。到本世紀中期,如果不能采取有效措施,阻止氣溫升高,那將是一場難以預料的災難。

最後,如何使新科技發展趨利避害。工業化以來,歷次科技革命主要的變就是增量漸變,這次是大變量,是轉折、轉型。智能化會改變我們已經逐步建立起來的生產方式、生活方式,有積極的因素,也有消極的因素,智能替代人腦、人手,最大的挑戰是人的就業,還有收入分配,再有就是智能技術運用到戰爭非常危險。如果不能夠和平利用新興科技,那將帶來巨大的威脅。

中國不僅置身大變局,而且是對大變局具有重大影響的因素。中國要統籌三個定位:一是需要繼續堅持改革開放,不斷提升;二是實現復興之夢,維護好和平發展的機遇期;三是做新型大國,為世界和平發展作出貢獻。為此,要在百年變局中把握好自己,同時也在推動世界向好的方向發展中發揮引領作用。

[我的著作]《國際區域學概論》聚焦區域問題。[它指出]世界—區域—國家構成一個有機的體系,國際區域是一個客觀存在,也具有治理的功能。國際區域是介於世界與國家之間的一種共域空間,「國際區域是多個國家共處的地區」,「既基於地緣連接,也基於利益連接;既有國家間的關係,也有區域層次的關係;既有區域內關係,也有區域間關係」。

[中國]設立交叉學科門類為構建區域國別學學科打開了大門。......涵蓋政治、經濟、歷史、文化,也涵蓋自然科學的諸多方面,目前都是分門別類的研究和理論構建,缺乏交叉和系統的理論體系。《國際區域學概論》就是從交叉學科的視角,為國際區域研究提供理論支撐,這對於作為交叉學科門類的區域國別學是有益的。

張蘊嶺:大變局下的中國話語構建之道原見:爱思想 2022-04-29,作者為中國社會科學院學部委員、研究員,山東大學特聘人文一級教授) 

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on April 10, 2024 at 4:04pm


[开斋节互勉]

过去一年,有心人都辛苦了。

往前看,好像是“路漫漫其修远兮”;

但有心人能发挥“吾将上下而求索”的

大无畏精神,眼下这个

“尚未完成的马来西亚”,

正值得大家正面发挥创造力。

沙巴内陆穆斯林女孩乘上火车回乡
(刘富威·婆罗洲民族摄影录)


延续阅读:

族群和解主题馆


思想决定行动,行动决定习惯;

习惯决定性格;性格决定结局。

陳明發博士原創·心靈•素質•能量


眼下很多捆绑,

是老思想命定的结局。

松绑要先从思想做起,
少一分浪漫与偏激
就是给理性与创意
多一个机会

多接触新思想、新技艺
就能减低冲突与毁灭的几率

能提升我们处事方式
以及解困机会的智慧
实际上早在这世界上
而且不止一家学说


这里就有三个例子:


联合国教科文组织·混融人性理念

用静能量对抗狂热

「第四权」:解困新闻学的新媒体策略

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 12, 2024 at 1:30pm

Professionally Generated Content (PGC)

Professionally Generated Content (PGC) is that content generated by the brand itself in order to let people know its brand and much more than they have to offer through images, videos, blog posts etc.

When compared to UGC, PGC not only ensures good quality content but also is equipped with good capabilities of commerce and operations. The PGC team can invest more time, energy and money in producing videos as they pay more attention to the quality content and the message being sent to the viewers and customers. They plan to be real and formal when it comes to promoting their brand, unlike UGC. PGC platforms usually attract a large number of viewers and customers because of offering the best of content and deals.


The content created professionally does justice to its name as it is very apt and aims to let viewers have complete information about their product or brand in such a manner that indeed involves them in knowing about it even more.

There is no worry of quality of content, the participation of fans as such or consumption of time like UGC as the brand themselves keeps a check on all of the above and thus performs accordingly.


The main issue with videos or content created by a professional production company is the perceived value given by high-quality content. PGC also holds a level of perfection when it comes to people working with the process as there’s a lot to research on and know about people’s interests and values and what they’d be looking for.

It takes efforts and hard work to create a platform that would attract customers and let the business flourish. Abiding the laws, keeping a factual check, interests of the viewers, participation percentage and a lot more is associated with PGC platform.


Though there are both pros and cons of UGC and PGC, we still wonder who’d be taking over the throne of Social Market and how would it be possible with time?

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 3, 2024 at 11:32am


How to write a book proposal by by Joanna Ebenstein

I have always loved books. When I was a child, our big weekly outing was a visit to the library where my sisters and I were allowed three books each. My mother, an avid reader, kept the house stocked with paperbacks sourced from a local thrift store, so growing up we had at our disposal everything from Colleen McCullough’s The Thorn Birds to Simone de Beauvoir’s The Mandarins to Stephen King’s Salem’s Lot. For fun, my sister Donna and I even wrote back-cover copy for books of our own invention. When we grew up, we planned to team up to write and illustrate books of our own.

Of course, that is not exactly how things worked out. But I did go on to work in the publishing world as a book designer, editor, and publisher. And, I also did end up writing my own back-cover copy, and later, my own books.

I learned to write book proposals directly from the editors to whom I pitched my first ideas. The first proposal I wrote was for a book about my favorite museum in San Francisco, Musée Mechanique, for Chronicle Books. It was not accepted—the sales team thought the project was too local-interest—but writing that proposal gave me the template and approach that I went on to utilize again and again, ultimately with much success.

What writing book proposals taught me is how to effectively communicate a book idea to a publisher. I came to realize that a book proposal is not a lofty, idealistic presentation of one’s brilliant idea, but rather a persuasive document meant to convince a publisher to spend their time—and, more to the point, their money—on your idea. As publishing becomes increasingly competitive and publishers less willing to take risks, a good, persuasive proposal is more important than ever before.

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 3, 2024 at 11:31am

In the following guide, I will lay out what I have learned from both my personal experiences and through years of conversations with friends who have either published books or worked as literary agents. This guide is intended to help people at any stage of developing a book they would like to see in the world. — Joanna Ebenstein

What is a book proposal?

A book proposal is a document intended to convince a publisher that your project is economically viable for their publishing house. It needs to persuade its reader that your idea has enough commercial potential that the publisher should take the risk of putting money and resources into your book.

Beyond that, book proposals are also wonderful developmental tools. The act of writing one will help you clarify your thoughts and find a way to express your book idea clearly and succinctly. It will also help you understand the essence of your project so that you can communicate it with more ease.
When writing your proposal it is important to think about your audience. It is very likely that your proposal will be read by someone who does not know you or anything about your subject. With this in mind, how can you describe your project in such a way that it sounds interesting and compelling, and above all, economically viable? And remember, convincing this reader is only the first step. If they get behind your project, they will then have to convince the publisher’s sales team and/or finance department that it is worth the risk.

I have personally found it very valuable—before sitting down to write the proposal—to talk to friends about my book idea. I observe what I end up saying again and again, or how the story unconsciously changes over time in response to their questions and feedback. When do their eyes light up? When do they get excited? Pay attention, and note the way that even without consciously intending it, you are crafting a stronger, more rousing pitch. Really seek out the parts of your pitch that illicit passion, conviction, and persuasion. Once you have fine-tuned your argument in this way, it’s time to sit down to write your proposal.

Comment by 誰還記得北婆羅州? on February 2, 2024 at 8:29pm

What goes into a book proposal?

Before I begin, please note: The following guidelines are just that—guidelines. These are the contents of a sort of platonic ideal of a proposal, but in my experience, actual proposals can vary widely. So approach this as a set of suggestions, adding or removing elements as you see fit to make this the most persuasive document it can be for your project. If you know who will be reading your proposal, craft it with them in mind. If not, simply try to make it as clear and compelling as you possibly can.

As an example, I include here one of my own proposals, for my book The Anatomical Venus (click here to download the PDF). In this case, I had a relationship with the editor and they had solicited the proposal, so I was able to be a bit more casual and allusive than I generally would be. No sample chapter was necessary and, since an important part of the project was the visual aspect, I included lots of strong and enticing imagery to demonstrate the commercial appeal of the project.

What a book proposal should contain

1) Header

Start with the working title of the project along with your name, email, and phone number.

2) A brief synopsis of the book

Some people suggest a one-sentence synopsis; I have always used a one-to five-paragraph description of the project. This should essentially be your elevator pitch, so be sure to describe your book in a succinct and compelling way.

3) Longer synopsis of the book, if you feel it is necessary

This is a longer narrative description of the project. It should clearly answer the following questions:

What is the project?

Why are you the right person to write this book?
Do you have any special connections or access that is worth mentioning—for example, if this is a book about a museum, do you have a contact there? Have they agreed to work with you?
And, again, stress why this project is commercially viable. What is the audience for this book, and how can you reach them?

4) Chapter breakdown

Create a list of chapters with a few sentences describing what you will cover in each. If this will be an art book, you might also include a few images here; see my sample proposal for an example of how to include images. If you have an idea for a well-known person who might be a good fit for writing a foreword, include that, too. It helps sales to have a famous name attached to any book. And, you need not know the person—it can just be an idea for an appropriate person.

Note: Don’t worry about getting it all perfect at this stage. In my experience, the chapter breakdown often changes significantly between the proposal stage and the final book.

愛墾網 是文化創意人的窩;自2009年7月以來,一直在挺文化創意人和他們的創作、珍藏。As home to the cultural creative community, iconada.tv supports creators since July, 2009.

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