公元399年,晋朝,法顯法師以六十五歲高齡發跡長安,涉流沙、逾蔥嶺,徒步數萬里,遍遊北印,廣參聖跡,學習梵文,抄錄經典,歷時多年,復泛海至獅子國今斯里蘭卡,經耶婆提今印度尼西亞而後返國。時年已八十歲,仍從事佛經翻譯。

公元515年 中國南北朝時代,梁武帝蕭衍極力提倡佛法,其聲望因而遠播於東南亞許多崇奉佛教的國家,狼牙脩亦是其中之一,依照《梁書》卷五十四的《狼牙脩國傳》中記載,在公元515年(天監14年),當時狼牙脩國的國王"婆加達多",派使者阿撤多出使南京,拜見梁武帝。並交給梁武帝國書。狼牙脩的使者阿撤多交給梁武帝國書全文記載在《粱書》。

627年正月,貞觀元年,玄奘一人西行五萬里,歷經艱辛到達印度佛教中心那爛陀寺取真經,前後十七年,遍學了當時大小乘各種學說,一共帶回佛舍利150粒、佛像7尊、經論657部,並長期從事翻譯佛經的工作。玄奘及其弟子翻譯出典75部(1335卷),譯典著作有《大般若經》《心經》《解深密經》《瑜伽師地論》《成唯識論》等。《大唐西域記》十二卷,記述他西遊親身經歷的110個國家及傳聞的28個國家的山川、地邑、物產、習俗等。《西遊記》即以玄奘取經事跡為原型。

公元671,唐朝咸亨二年,唐朝名僧義淨大師曾經由海路到印度取經。由廣州,取道海路,經室利弗逝(蘇門答臘巴鄰旁,Palembang)至印度,一一巡禮鷲峰、雞足山、鹿野苑、祇園精舍等佛教聖跡後,往那爛陀寺勤學十年,後又至蘇門答臘遊學七年。歷遊三十余國,返國時,攜梵本經論約四百部、舍利三百粒至洛陽,武后親至上東門外迎接,敕住佛授記寺。公元695年回國,期間極可能曾在同樣信奉佛教的狼牙脩(Langkasuka 吉打/泰南)停留。

1854
11月至1856年元月,華萊士在砂拉越大森林裡走過的探險之旅。


1855 在山都望政府渡假村做客的華萊士,花了三個晚上寫了一篇論文,提出聞名後世的“砂拉越定律”(Sarawak Law)。


2013 紀念華萊士逝世一百週年的特別年份。



照片说明:砂拉越華族與加央族百年前的的樟腦貿易

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Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 10, 2022 at 1:32am

研究西加里曼丹蘭芳共和國参考書目

〈不應消失的記憶——蘭芳共和國〉

〈華人曾建立蘭芳共和國:共建國 110 年〉

蘭芳共和國:華人在海外建立的第一個國家

鮮為人知的華人小國:蘭芳共和國

孔永松,2005,〈論羅芳伯的偉大歷史貢獻〉,林金樹主編,《中華心客家情:第一屆客家學術研討會論文集》。馬來西亞客家學研究會出版。

王琛發,2007,〈蘭芳憾事的異鄉留痕—從東馬倫樂東臣廟的羅芳伯崇拜談起〉,《馬來西亞客家人本土信仰》。吉隆坡:馬來西亞客家公會聯合會。88 客家研究 第三卷 第一期

瓦西德,2003,〈偉大的歷史貢獻:序長篇文學傳記《羅芳伯傳》〉。頁 5-6。張永和、張開源,《羅芳伯傳》。印尼:和平書局出版社。

戎撫天,1976,〈蘭芳大總制的興亡與意義〉,民族與華僑研究論文編輯委員會編,《民族與華僑論文集》。頁 116-126。中華學術院民族與華僑研究所。

巫樂華,1995,《南洋華僑史話》。台北:台灣商務印書館。

李喬原創,2006,《客家採茶大戲:羅芳伯傳奇》。榮興客家採茶劇團製作/演出。(視聽資料)。

周怡君,1999,《荷屬時期爪哇華人甲必丹與華人經濟研究》。國立成功大學歷史系碩士論文。

房漢佳,2008,倫樂社之今昔,《華校春秋》,77 期。

袁冰凌,1996,〈高延與婆羅洲公司研究〉,收於高延,《婆羅州華人公司制度》(袁冰凌譯),頁 147-159。台北:中央研究院近代史研究所。

高木桂藏,1992,《日本人筆下的客家》。關屋牧譯。台北:關屋牧出版。

高延,1996,《婆羅州華人公司制度》(袁冰凌譯)。台北:中央研究院近代史研究所。

張永和、張開源,2005,《羅芳伯傳》。印尼;和平書局。

童貴珊,2007,〈赤道國度:西加里曼丹華族榮辱〉,《經典》,111 期。

溫雄飛,1943,《南洋華僑通史》。重慶:商務印書館。

溫廣益等,1985,《印度尼西亞華僑史》。北京:海洋出版社。P.115

趙池凹,2006,《新華月報》,2006 年第 02 期。

蕭耀華,2007,(赤道國度:西加里曼丹華族榮辱〉,《經典》,111 期,

簡瑛欣,2008,〈方言群內聚與超越:砂勞越古晉華人民間信仰初探〉。《2008 年台灣的東南亞區域研究年度論文研討會》論文。亞洲大學,2008.4.25-26。

羅香林,1961,《西婆羅洲羅芳伯等所建共和國考》。香港:中國學社。

(見:張維安&張容嘉《客家人的大伯公:蘭芳公司的羅芳伯及其事業》《客家研究》第三卷第一期 2009 年 6 月 頁 57-88)

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 9, 2022 at 3:42pm

Imperialism Indonesia
The Dutch controlled Indonesia longer and had more influence on Indonesia than any other country. The Dutch had some form of influence on Indonesia from 1602 up until 1949.  That is 347 years of influence.  That is also more than 100 years longer than America has been recognized as an independent country.  The Dutch‘s influence on Indonesia is still seen today and because Indonesia was imperialized  Indonesia is still struggling.  These events shaped Indonesia forever when the Dutch had that 347 years of influence on Indonesia. (20)

Late 1500’s -1600’s

The first Dutch expedition to Indonesia was in 1595.  This was led by Cornelius de Houtman.  In 1596 the Dutch expedition had made contact with the Portuguese and Indonesians.  Then at the start of the century in 1602, the Dutch East India Company was established.  Another name for the Dutch East India Company is the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie more commonly known as the VOC.  The VOC was made to protect trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in war of independence from Spain.  Only a year after the VOC was created, the Dutch built their first permanent trading post in Banten, West Java.  In 1611 the Dutch weren’t the only ones in Indonesia.  The British established several trading posts in Indonesia.  The British would remain in Indonesia until 1824.  Two years later on January 27, 1613 a Dutch fleet arrived at Solor.  There were nearly 30 Portuguese and 1000 natives to defend the fort for Captain Manuel Alvares.  Yet after 3 months of siege, the Dutch finally had Solor Fortress on April 18, 1613.  The Dutch would rename it Fort Henricus.  In 1619 the Dutch would rename the city of Jayakarta to Batavia and it became the new VOC headquarters. Then on February 27, 1623 the chief factor of the English East India company, Gabriel Towerson  was put on trial and then beheaded along with 9 other English men, 10 Japanese traders and one Portuguese man for conspiracy against the Dutch.  This would be known as the Ambonya Massacare because it took place on the island of Ambonya.  The Dutch East Indies was formed to bring all of Indonesia under one government.  Not much else would happen in the 1600’s with the Dutch but a lot of violence would follow in the 1700’s. (4,8,15,19,20,24,26)

1700’s

In the 1700’s there were 3 wars which the Dutch were involved in with Indonesia: the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Javanese wars. The first Javanese War started when a slave named Surapati organized a large group of natives against the Dutch.  King Amankurat of Mataram took notice and gave refuge to the slave when the Dutch attempted to capture him.  (Mataram is a kingdom in central Java.)   After his stay in Mataram, Surapati moved to the northeastern part of Java and named himself king.  As a result of his actions the Dutch took Amankurat out of power and put Amankurat’s uncle on the Mataram throne over a period of time.  His name was Pakubuwono and he and the Dutch would eventually defeat Amankurat who fled to the east with Surapati.  The Dutch were still in hot pursuit of Amankurat and Surapati.  In 1708 the Dutch exiled Amankurat to Sri Lanka and killed Surapati. (19,31)

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 9, 2022 at 3:42pm

In the 2nd Javanese War Pakubuwono died so there was lots of fighting about who would take his crown.  The Dutch supported who they thought would do what they wanted the best.   It took about 4 years of war for the Dutch to capture all their rivals. Soon after the Dutch sent them all into exile.  During this the Dutch expanded their territory in Java. Finally in the 3rd and last Javanese War King Pakubuwono III faced 2 challengers to the throne.  Pakubuwono received military support from the Dutch though.  In 1751 the Dutch were shocked and defeated, during which their commander was brutally killed. One of the challengers agreed to the Gianti Agreement in 1755 which split Mataram in two.  Pakubuwono got the Eastern half of Mataram and the challenger got the western half.  The other challenger resisted until he finally made peace with the Dutch in 1757 and was given a portion of Eastern Mataram.  In the 1700’s the Dutch were fighting in the Javanese wars for most of the time. (19,31)

1800’s

In 1800 the Dutch East India Trading Company was broke and slowly fell apart.  All its land was then named the Dutch East Indies.  In 1801 the British took over the region of Minhasa but then in 1802 the Treaty of Amiens was signed and Melaka and Maluku were returned to the Dutch.  In 1817, the British got control of Melaka again.  To split the land in half, the Dutch and the British would sign the Treaty of London.  The Dutch would get most of Indonesia and the British would get Malaya, Singapore and other islands.  In the same year the Dutch had a direct rule of Raiu.  From 1825 to 1830 there was another war called the Java war.  The Java war was caused by Prince Diponegoro because the Dutch built roads over the tombs of the Prince’s parents.   In 1830, 15,000 European soldiers were killed and the Prince lost 200,000 civilians and soldiers in the Java war.  The Prince was then set up and put in jail by the Dutch.  Due to the colonization of the province of Aceh there was a war between the Dutch and the Sultanate of Aceh which lasted from 1873 to 1913. (3,8,31)

1900’s to Independance

From 1901 to 1910 the regions of Bali, Borneo, Moluccas and Sulawesi were all taken over by the Dutch.  By the end of the Aceh war in 1913 the Dutch also had taken over Aceh.  Not much happened until 1938 when the Dutch had turned down the independence petition proposed by the Indonesians.  Four years later, the Japanese declared war on the Dutch and invaded the Dutch East Indies. From 1942 to 1945 Japan occupied the Dutch East Indies.  In 1945 the Dutch regained control over the Dutch East Indies.  Right after the Dutch regained control of Indonesia they declared independence against the Dutch.  From 1945 until 1949 the Dutch and Indonesia fought for independence.  Finally in 1949 the Dutch accepted Indonesia’s independence. (32)

(Source: https://imperialismindonesia.weebly.com)

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 9, 2022 at 12:39am

Imperialism Indonesia Works Cited
Website By: Shannon Carey, Brittany Lynch, and Nick Naumann

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Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 9, 2022 at 12:39am

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edited by Robert Whaples. March 16, 2008. URL a href="http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/touwen.indonesia%3E" target="_blank">http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/touwen.indonesia>;

33. Verico Kiki, Canberra. "Trade Challenges and Indonesia's Ideal Response." The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 14 Mar. 2013. a href="http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/02/15/trade-challenges-and-indonesia-s-ideal-response.html%3E" target="_blank">http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/02/15/trade-challenges-and-...;.

34. "Water Challenges in Indonesia." Petros Water. Petros, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2013. a href="http://petroswater.com/news/141.html%3E" target="_blank">http://petroswater.com/news/141.html>;.

(Source: https://imperialismindonesia.weebly.com/dutch-colonization.html

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 7, 2022 at 11:19pm

借中國古籍重構馬來西亞歷史結語:中國古籍的記載對構建馬來西亞歷史全貌具有重要的作用和積極意義。中國古籍的史料價值主要表現在:1,中國古籍所記載的歷史時間非常長;2,中國古籍記載的馬來西亞古國數量非常多;3,中國古籍所記載的內容非常豐富;4,中國古籍的記載是研究馬來西亞古代歷史不可缺少的重要史料來源。當然,中國古籍的記述由於技術條件和認識水平的限製,對所記述的國家有些模糊,尤其是所記述的國名或者地名,由於沒有精確的地圖可供參考。使到後人在判斷確切地點時困難重重,因而也存在不少爭議,例如古代的地名到底等於現在什麼地方,正確的認定確切地點對進行研究是非常關鍵的,否則,差之毫厘,失之千裏。這也是通過中國古籍研究古代東南亞國家歷史時所面臨的主要困難。但是,在中國古籍中,有些記述是比較清楚的,同時,人們可以通過中國古籍記所述的其他方面的內容,加上其他材料進行綜合的判斷。總之,要全面研究馬來西亞歷史,需要從不同史料來源來加以互相印證,需要利用文字材料以外如利用考古發掘的材料來互相印證。在馬來西亞古代歷史或者東南亞古代歷史中,中國古籍相對其他文字材料而言,具有記述時間比較早、比較有延續性和比較詳細可靠的特點。中國古籍的記載,是我們研究馬來西亞古代歷史的基本材料,正是有了這些記載,馬來西亞古代歷史面貌變得更加清楚和有系統性。著名歷史學家霍爾D.G.E. Hall)教授說,中國古籍「對於闡明我們這個地區(指東南亞)的政治地理和貿易的確是無價之寶」[107]。可以說,中國古籍在研究馬來西亞歷史中具有不可替代的作用。(張應龍,2005,清代以前中國古籍有關馬來西亞的記述以及史料價值,暨南大學華僑華人研究所)

107 D. G. E. Hall, The History of South-East Asia,London:MacMillan & Co.Ltd. Third Edition,
1968, p.15.

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on July 1, 2022 at 12:17am

詩巫墾場條例

砂拉越政府在18801129日於憲報上公布:

我,查理士布律克鄭重聲明以下條例,砂拉越政府同意和任何華裔公司簽約帶領三百名以上之華族勞工與家屬於砂拉越拉讓江一帶從事農業工作。

(1)政府將免費提供移植者足夠土地種植。

(2)政府將首先建築道路及臨時註屋安置這些移植者。


(3)政府將在第一年內每個月供給每名成人一“巴蘇”食米及一些鹽,小孩每名半巴蘇食米。


(4)政府保證提供船隻來往古晉和拉讓江一帶載貨,取費亦相當低廉。


(5)政府將建立警察局保護居民之安全,幫助他們學習和理解土話,並盡心照顧他們。


(6)在符合上述條件下,移植者可以永久居住砂拉越之土地上。

(砂拉越華族文化協會,1992年,《馬來西亞砂拉越詩巫華族史料集》,17頁,蔡存雄等編輯)

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on June 29, 2022 at 10:38pm

石隆門華工起義遺跡探詢
——謹以本文紀念起義一百五十周年
華工遺跡值得憑吊

一百五十年前的石隆門華工起義雖然失敗了,卻給後來不少啟示,不但反殖反帝事跡永在流傳,也遺留不少遺跡,值得供人經常憑吊。一百五十年後的今天,這些遺跡怎樣了?它們發生了怎樣的變化?值得再作報導。

石隆門(Bau)是砂拉越(Sarawak)西部一個市鎮,其開發和發現金礦及銻有重大關係,華族金礦工人和當時的“公司”組織對石隆門的開發貢獻巨大。華人到石隆門開采金礦,約有兩百年的歷史。不過,遠在一千多年前,華人已經在石隆門留下蹤跡。考古學家在石隆門地區掘出許多古代中國文物就是明證。

根據多本書籍記載,一七七七年,來自中國廣東梅縣的一批人在羅芳伯的帶領下,抵達荷屬婆羅洲坤甸附近東萬律地區開采金礦,並建立了蘭芳大統制。大約在十九世紀初,便有一部份華人礦工想另求出路,輾轉北移越過哇橫山進入石隆門地方,開采這裏的金礦,並成立了“義興公司”,就是後來的“十二份公司”“三條溝公司”

當年開采金礦是使用“泥溝沖洗法”,所謂三條溝者,應該是指三個開采金礦的地點,據說第一條溝是指石隆門帽山地區,第二條溝是指新堯灣友蘭路(數十年前有人稱“牛欄肚”)地區,第三條則指左手港——即巴都吉當一帶。陳紹唐在1947年到帽山探詢華工起義遺跡時,曾經拍照,他在照片後寫上“義興公司旗桿夾”字樣。

華人礦工在石隆門開采金礦,發展很快,可以說是業務蒸蒸日上。在石隆門、大段、燕窩山、武梭、砂南坡、北歷都設有礦場,吸引大批在荷屬婆羅洲的華人遷入。公司的大本營——帽山地區,變成為一個繁榮的鬧市,有商店數十間。砂南坡(Paku)也形成另一個有商店數十間的小鎮。

約在一八四○年左右,“義興公司”已在石隆門建起具有獨特經濟基礎的社會,有本身的法制和貨幣,嚴然成為一個獨立人口約四千人的小王國。


華工流傳雙音暗語


“義興公司”的成員之間,在需要的時候,會以一種“雙音話”交談,不懂這種語言者,無法了解談話的內容。筆者在學生時代聽過長期居住在石隆門的嬸母說過,堂姐曾經作簡單介紹。劉伯奎老師在他的著作中也曾提及這種語言。根據我從語音學的角度看,這種“雙音話”,和舊字典中的“反切”拼音法相近。

如果懂得“反切法”和客家話,大概就聽得懂了。石隆門華工的發展,後來受到英國殖民地主義者詹姆士·布洛克皇朝的欺壓。野心勃勃的詹姆士·布洛克鞏固其統治砂拉越的地位後,開始擴張勢力,不但逐漸蠶食了汶萊的領土,也向石隆門華工公司進逼。

在政治上他不准許華人建立具有自治獨立意味的“公司”與他分庭抗禮;在經濟上他要向石隆門的華人礦工征收稅務,以增加他的收入,消滅石隆門華人“公司”便成了他的目標。而華人礦工已把石隆門建設成一個繁榮的社會,不容布洛克來干涉,也絕不肯受制於布洛克,由是雙方的矛盾便日益嚴重化,終於導致一八五七年的華工起義。華工起義的原因、經過和結果,許多著作都有提及,上期“風下”副刊已有提及,在此不贅。

在石隆門華工起義一百五十周年的今天,筆者只想就多年來經常探訪華工起義遺跡所得,作一些敘述。


帽嶺公園未能建成


當年的“石隆門華工起義”遺留下來的古跡,包括帽山大本營的“旗桿夾”、重修後的幾座廟宇:天師龍宮、國王古廟、將軍廟(忠臣廟)、把水口伯公廟和古墓群。在新堯彎地區則有劉善邦廟。在裕恒山下之立達坦那(Lindah Tanah)則有碼頭和古亂葬崗遺跡。這些古跡,“風下”副刊都曾經報導。我由上個世紀七十年代開始關注石隆門華工起義事件,並且多次帶領學者友人前往考察,並留下不少照片。

我也曾經和一批友人深入鬼洞,尋找華工留下的遺跡,可惜一無所獲。對於當年華工在帽山的遺跡,石隆門中華商會和第一省華總文教組曾經在上世紀八十年代召開聯席會議,計劃將它發展成為“帽嶺古跡公園”。並擬定了完整的計劃書,還請當時在石隆門擔任公務員的周發勝畫了公園構想圖,並將計劃書提呈給當時的一位助理部長。令人遺憾的是,此項計劃後來宣告胎死腹中。


旗桿夾仍屹立不倒


根據各方面的資料,當年華工所組成的“義興公司”在帽山的大本營建有“國王古廟”和“天師龍宮”,廣場立有一座旗桿。旗桿以兩塊鹽柴木板夾住(俗稱“旗桿夾”)。該兩塊鹽柴木板相距九寸,離地八尺八寸,闊一尺六寸,厚四寸,旗桿據說高約兩丈多,在七八十年前倒下。

國王古廟和天師龍宮都經過重修,寫著“天師龍宮”字樣的牌匾仍在。“旗桿夾”經歷超過一百五十的風雨,仍然屹立不倒。二○○六年杪,劉添財為它加蓋了一座亭子加以保護。在目前的天師龍宮外邊右側地上,可以看到兩塊鹽材木板,經過多年的風雨,表面雖然已經有腐朽的痕跡,木質仍然堅硬。

據說華工大本營前面有一小溪,溪上架著三塊鹽材木板,若有觸犯規章者,便在這三塊木板上受罰。大約在十多年前,對“石隆門華工事件”有研究興趣的林柏森、賴南球等幾位教育界人士,在“旗桿夾”附近進行發掘工作,除了找到許多陶瓷碎片之外,也找到上述兩塊鹽材木板。

把水口伯公廟和將軍廟也已經重修,舊貌只能在照片中追尋。古墓群在三十年前仍然可辨別,去年考察時多數已經難以尋找了。在一戶人家的門外,仍然可以看到露出地面的棺材頭。去年的考察計劃,原本包括裕恒山碼頭舊址,但是向導告知,需乘船才能抵達,只好放棄。當年的遺跡還存多少,只能有待來日查考了。


重修過的劉善邦廟(善德廟),相傳是劉善邦英勇犧牲處,經常有人到訪,算是香火依舊。據劉楊謙俊敘述,華工與詹姆士·布洛克軍當年曾隔河炮戰,華工傷亡頗重。友蘭路山崗下,曾經尋獲直徑三寸左右的炮彈。


歷史遠去事跡流傳


石隆門華工起義已經一百五十年了,歷史雖然遠去,華工卻在人們的腦海中留下深刻的形象。最近幾年,不斷有人重寫這段歷史,以恢復事件的原貌,並且取得一定的成績。至於華工起義遺跡的保護與發覺工作,則仍然有待相關單位的努力。願大家重視歷史,並以實際行動保護歷史遺跡。
(李南林 2007年3月17日)

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on June 28, 2022 at 9:01pm

周達觀在《真臘風土記》的記載是當時有關吳哥文化的唯一史料是這個時代的文物精華。此外,還廣泛地敘述了當地人民的經濟活動,包括農業、手工業、貿易等,介紹了當地人民日常生活,如衣、食、住、行的情況。全書約8500字,分為城郭、宮室、服飾、官屬、三教、人物、產婦、奴婢、語言、野人、文字、正朔時序、爭訟、病癩、死亡、耕種、山川、出產、貿易、欲得唐貨、草木、飛鳥、走獸、蔬菜、魚龍、醞釀、鹽醋醬、蠶桑、器用、車轎、舟楫、村落、異事、澡浴、流寓、軍馬、國主出入等40餘節。(沈濟時《海上絲綢之路》,上海:上海古籍出版社,2010年)

Comment by 美索 布達米亞 on June 15, 2022 at 1:24am

鄭和的三寶公魚傳說——在西加加里曼的華人中,尤以潮州人和福建人都不吃三板跳魚(稱三寶公魚),這種魚背脊上有五個手指紋,傳說是因被海浪打上三寶公的船上後,三寶太監親手抓起放生的,所以魚背上留下了三寶太監的五個手指印。(搜狗百科)

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